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Turkish Personal Endings (PEs)
"Türkçeyi öğrenmek ekleri öğrenmektir."
The Personal Endings (PEs) --
"In order to learn Turkish, you have to learn the suffixes."
How to use'm, not abuse'm...
In Turkey - Türkiye'de
Tüm sinema ve TV fırsatları için tıklayın !
In the Minority?
We may be in an inconsequential minority here,
but we've muddled up our personal endings...
(Not those personal endings!
We mean the ones attached as suffixes
to Turkish verb stems, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs...)
...more than once, so we've decided to discuss the two varieties that have given us the most trouble, together on a single page -- the better for us to observe and compare them during (recurrent) lapses of memory.
But we're not as mad as we may first appear -- because in many ways the personal endings for the verb stems, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs are very similar.
Have a look for yourself, in the following paragraphs.
Personal Endings (PEs) --
- The Personal Verbal Endings/suffixes:
are those PEs that
you attach to verb stems, nouns, and adjectives -- to form verb-related constructions.
[For Example: When you attach the Personal Verbal Ending, '-ler', to the Wide-tense (Aorist) verb stem of görmek (which is görür), you get görürler; they see].
For more info, see the
Side-by-side Comparison Chart.
- The Personal Possessive Endings/suffixes:
are those PEs that
you attach to nouns and pronouns
and that are meant to show possession.
[For Example: When you attach the Personal Possessive Ending '-leri' to 'anne', you get anneleri; their mother]
For more info, see the
Side-by-side Comparison Chart.
If you're really determined to see these endings used for verb-related constructions,
then go ahead and click here.
Or have a romp on
the Verbal Nouns page...
Or jump below to see
all the oddball uses of the PPE.
But, remember how we tried to keep it nice n' easy for ya'...
Side by Side Comparison
of the Personal Verbal
and the Personal Possessive Endings/suffixes
|Special Note !!!
All endings in the following chart are subject to
the Rule of Vowel Harmony...
|Personal Verbal Endings (PVE)
||Personal Possessive Endings (PPE)
[attach to nouns, adjectives, and verb stems (except the definite past tense, -di stem)]
[only attach after the
definite past tense, -di stem]
I am a teacher
It's said that I am going
I was a teacher
I had gone
you are going
you were going
you were crazy
your coffee cup
[doesn't have to
be present always ...]
she's a lawyer
he will fly
(no personal ending)
she is a lawyer
he is flying
- Cim'in ailesi
Jim's [his] family
- arabanın aküsü
the car's [its] battery
its boiling (action)
[Note that the noun in the preceding example (kaynama) is a verbal noun (not a negative verbal command) -- and is subject to the same PPE endings as any other Turkish noun...]
we are well
we will marry
we were well
you are bad
- geliyor musunuz?
are you all
you were bad
- geliyor muydunuz?
were you all
[these endings can also
appear in reverse order,
but they are not
they are lazy
they are opening
- gitmeyecekler mi?
aren't they going to go?
- (Example where no verbal ending required)
they were lazy
- gitmediler mi?
didn't they go?
they were unable to nourish
[alternative spelling: besleyemiyorlardı -- Click link to see more examples...]
their easy chair
Also see Essential Turkish, Verb to be -- present tense
Also see Essential Turkish, Verb to be -- past tense
Confusions that may arise
Since the Personal Endings are so similar to each other and because they are identical in looks to other types of endings, it's not surprising that confusion may arise in their use and interpretation.
For example, depending on the sentence it's found in...
- çocuklarI can mean his/her/its children -- that's because 'çocuklar' can represent the plural of 'child' and, when you attach the 3rd personal singular, Personal Possessive Ending 'I' it means 'his/her/its'.
Thus, his/her/its children...
- çocukları can mean their child -- that's because 'çocuk' can represent the singular of 'child' and, when you attach the 3rd person plural, Personal Possessive Ending 'ları' it means 'their'. Thus, their child...
- çocuklarI can mean their children -- that's because 'çocuklar' can represent the plural of child and, when you attach the 3rd person, Plural Personal Possessive Ending 'larI' it means 'their'. Thus, their children... (Note: You only see one 'lar' in this construction because 'larlar' can't occur in Turkish. So, one 'lar' must be dropped.)
- çocuklarI can mean the children -- that's because 'çocuklar' can represent the plural of 'child' and when you attach the 'direct object' Case Ending 'ı' (which is identical in appearance to the 3rd person singular, Personal Possessive Ending), it means 'the'. Thus, the children...
In another confusing instance, çocukların can mean...
- your children -- that's because 'çocuklar' can represent the plural of 'child' and, when you attach the Personal Possessive Ending 'ın' it means 'your' which results in
- of the children -- that's because 'çocuklar'
can represent the plural of 'child'
when you attach
the Case Ending 'ın' (which is identical in appearance to the Personal Possessive Ending that
we just used in the previous paragraph)
it means 'of' which results in
of the children...
No worry, mate.
We talk more about
all Case Endings on another page.
Does any of this make sense to you, Marvin?
Umm... Can I get back to you on that one, Mabel?
for more about "Ambiguities"
like the ones above
'Oddball' Uses of the 'Personal Possessive Endings' (PPEs)
It's probably too strong to call these uses 'Oddball'.
Or is it?
Well, we call'em 'oddball' if they are found among any of the following list items. What do you think?
- When attached to verb stems, the PPEs help form 'Past Personal' or 'Future Personal' Participles in Turkish...
- ...but sometimes not. And when not, they may simply be 'faux-participles'. The best way to quickly understand 'faux-participles' is to observe an example of one. Click the following hyper-link to see a 'faux-participle' in action. And click this next hyper-link to see another...
- When PPEs get involved with saying "when", we often dive for cover...Do you remember our heavy duty charts on this interesting Turkish language construction?
Actually, no, I don't. Remind me, please.
- When PPEs are attached to interrogatives they can raise serious questions...For example, when you attach the 1st person singular PPE, '-im' to the interrogative 'ne' you get an oddball pronoun, nem or neyim meaning what of mine? And, it doesn't end there -- as the chart reveals...
|nem? or neyim?
||what of mine?
||nen? or neyimiz?
||what of ours?
|nen? or neyin?
||what of yours?
||neniz? or neyiniz?
||what of yours (pl.)?
|nesi? or neyi?
||what of his/hers/its?
||what of theirs?
- And when PPEs are attached to certain adjectives and even adverbs, in oddball ways, we get extremely nervous...For example, when you start adding PPEs to oddball adjectives, like hangi (which) then you start getting oddball pronouns, like...
||which of us?
||which of you (all)?
||which one of them?
||which (ones) of them?
Or when you anoint good ole ordinary adverbs, like çok; much, very, many with PPEs, they turn into oddball pronouns (or even adjectives) -- right before your very eyes...
||most of us
||most of you
|most of it, most of them
||çokları, as in bir çokları
||a good many of them
e.g. çoğu zaman
|most times, most often