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|Ebedi Adalet Harekatı||Operation ||The original name (that caused controversy among Muslims) for |
|Ege Denizi||[the] Aegean Sea|
|Ekvador (Ekvadorlu, İspanyolca)||Ecuador (a Ecuadorian person/thing, the language of Ecuador [Spanish])||A finalist country for the 2002 Football/Soccer World Cup tournament...|
|El Cezire||al Jazeera |
[Qatari-based cable television station in the Persian Gulf]
|TV broadcasting in Arabic -- 'must-see' TV across the entire Arab world, with over 35,000,000 'impressionable' viewers.|
|Endonezya (Endonezyalı, ||Indonesia (an Indonesian person/thing, the Indonesian language)|
|Long-time Turkish politician and none-too-subtle Islamist |
Also see türban.
|Born in Sinop (Türkiye) in 1926, the German-educated former college professor formed his first overtly religious political party, the MNP (Milli Nizam Partisi -- National Order Party) in 1970. The Turkish Constitutional Court dissolved it in 1971 because the MNP "sought to render Turkey an Islamic theocracy, contrary to Atatürk's secular tenets as mandated in the Turkish Republic's Constitution."51 But Erbakan took the verdict in stride and soon formed the MSP (Milli Selamet Partisi -- National Salvation Party) -- which he guided into various Turkish coalition-governments with himself, at times, serving as deputy prime minister. But the MSP operated just barely inside the secular law and was at the root of mounting violent unrest in the country during the late 1970s. At a particularly dangerous point in 1980, Gen. Kenan Evren stepped in and carried out a bloodless coup. [The coup, which was generally supported by the public, was prompted by disgust at the failure of the politicians to control violence, fear of the Islamic upsurge (which drew strength from the Iranian revolution of 1979), concern at the spread of guerrilla warfare in the Southeast of Turkey, and renewed worries that the army might become infected by the politicization that had paralyzed the police force. And Erbakan was at the center of all of these fears.]119 Turkey returned to civilian rule in 1983 with a new Constitution, and 4 years later Erbakan formed his third religious party, the RP (Refah Partisi -- Welfare Party). At that time..."Erbakan was seen by at least some of his supporters as a savior. 'Khomeini in Iran! In Turkey, Erbakan!' they chanted. In those days, Islamist leaders like Erbakan made little pretense of moderation; Atatürk's ideology, Kemalism, was anathema, the politics of infidels, and they did not hesitate to say as much. In the mid-nineties, Erbakan vowed creation of an Islamic currency, an Islamic United Nations, an Islamic NATO, and an Islamic version of the European Union; he promised a cihad to recapture Jerusalem and a war to win back Turkey from 'the unbelievers of Europe' and from 'imperialism and Zionism.'
In the 1995 national elections, Welfare won just over twenty per cent of the vote, which allowed Erbakan to form a coalition government. As Prime Minister, he began to promote a brand of Islamism never before imagined in the Republic of Turkey. He paid friendly, even obsequious, visits to Qaddafi, in Libya, and to the mullahs in Iran. He invited Islamic leaders to his home; he gave a speech promising to build an enormous cami on Taksim Square (the center of Istanbul's commercial district)."120
But in January of 1997, when the Islamist mayor of Sincan, tried to hold a rally to honor "Jerusalem Day" (an Ayatollah Khomeini brainchild, to protest against Israel), the Turkish Army rolled in tanks and armored personnel carriers -- and put the rally and the mayor out of business for good. "Then, on February 28th, the military leadership, in the shape of the National Security Council, pressured Erbakan to accept eighteen 'recommendations,' many of them directed at reaffirming the secular nature of the state... Thus humiliated as a political leader, Erbakan resigned from office in June, 1997 -- and soon thereafter the Welfare Party was banned."120
Since 1997, Erbakan has twice more been instrumental in the formation of religious political parties -- the FP (Fazilet Partisi -- Virtue Party) in 2000 (banned in 2001) and the SP (Saadet Partisi -- Happiness Party) in 2002. [The SP still operates, with him as its leader (since May 2003) -- but it has a rather small following.] Still... despite Erbakan's self-inflicted political demise, the Islamic political movement has barely missed a beat; "it revamped itself, with a new name, a new leader, and a new, less threatening rhetoric."120 Now called the AKP, it has inherited most of Erbakan's hard-earned constituents; and has a far more polished (some would say 'more crafty') leader -- the former mayor of Istanbul, |
In the News: 23 December 2003... Erbakan today escaped having to serve a 2-year jail sentence (for an embezzle-ment conviction) -- when state doctor's gave him a 'poor health' get-out-of-jail-free card. Supporters and opponents alike are breathing a sigh of relief that a way was found to spare the 77-year-old die-hard politician from a stretch in the slammer.
|Erciyas [Erciyaş, Erciyeş]||Mount Argaeus |
[near Kayseri, Turkey]
|Erdün||a variation of Ürdün|
|Eritre (Eritreli, Tigrince, Arapça)||Eritrea (an Eritrean person/thing, the languages of Eritrea ([Tigrinya, Arabic])|
|erken uyarı radarları||early warning radar [sites]|
|Ermenistan (Ermeni, ||Armenia (an Armenian person/thing, the Armenian language)|
|Etiopya (Etiyopyalı)||Ethiopia (an Ethiopian person/thing)||also see Habeşistan...|
|etki(ler)||effect(s)||politik etkileri; political effects|
|etnik grup||ethnic group|
|Eyfel Kulesi||[the] Eiffel Tower|
|eylem||action, operation||eylemci; (an) activist|
Unlikely front-running 'Popstar'
Left click for image enlargement.
Tit for tat !
Left click for image enlargement.
|In the news: 5 January 2004, Hero of the downtrodden... Turkey too has been hit with 'Popstar' fever -- the Turkish version of this internationally famous show has captured the TV ratings for 9 staight weeks now. And its most unlikely front-runner this week, Bayhan Gürhan, has achieved hero status among Turkey's 'less-fortunate' classes. As a juvenile, Bayhan's criminal record included robbery, bodily harm -- and even 'wrongful death'. But when The Times of London picked up the story and ridiculed Bayhan (and, in the process, the whole Turkish population) his fan base among 'downtrodden' Turks only grew larger. Nearly every Turkish newspaper reported The Times' ridiculing coverage -- and aimed some pretty 'raw' ridicule of their own, back at Britains. (See mini-articles |
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