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Ottoman Age Notables... Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466  1536), influential Dutch humanist and theologian
Ottoman Age thinker
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Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
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Sultans and Concubines and Eunuchs, oh my...!

Site visitors may navigate the encyclopedia using the
Ottoman Empire Index
or the
Encyclopedia Sources Page.
Term Meaning Comments
Padişah Sovereign of the Ottomans, Sultan The general term used by Ottomans to mean "the sovereign," "the ruler"; in English we say "the sultan," Turkish they say "the padishah".
paşa (pasha)A high military and/or civil service rank (can mean 'General', 'Admiral', 'Excellency', etc.).  
Palaeologus FamilyByzantine family of rulers and despots of Greek origin that first became prominent in the 11th century.
"Its members married into the imperial houses of Comnenus, Ducas, and Angelus. Michael VIII Palaeologus, emperor at Nicaea (see Iznik) in 1259, founded the dynasty of the Palaeologi in Constantinople in 1261. His son Andronicus II (reigned 1282-1328) and his grandson Michael IX (d. 1320) succeeded Michael as co-emperors. Michael IX's son Andronicus III (1328-41) left the throne to his infant son John V (1341-91) whose rule was disputed by John VI Cantacuzenus (1347-54) and later by his grandson, John VII (1390). John V was succeeded, however, by his second son, Manuel II (1391-1425). John VIII (1425-48) was a son of Manuel II, and his brother Constantine XI (1449-53) became the last Byzantine emperor. Other brothers were Demetrius and Thomas, despots of the Morea until 1460. Thomas died at Rome in 1465; his daughter Zoe married Ivan III of Russia. Another branch of the family, descended from Theodore, son of Andronicus II, held the marquisate of Montferrat from 1305 to 1533."66
[Pope] Paul III
(Alessandro Farnese)
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Titian: Pope Paul III and his Nephews. National Museum, Naples35
The Pope from October 13th, 1534 until his death in 1549.
In many ways, Paul was typical of Renaissance popes of his day -- who took his lead (and his cardinal-deacon's orders) from Alexander VI. His personal life was scandalous, "he had three sons and a daughter and was much given to worldly pleasures and indulged in unlimited nepotism." But, "he was an elegant promoter of the inner reform of the Church".43
During his 15 year tenure, Paul had to endure an alliance between Francis I and Süleyman the Magnificent -- who repeatedly threatened to invade Italy and attack Rome...26
As much as he tried, Paul failed in his efforts to reconcile with (or to check the spread of) Protestantism. And the bull he published against Henry VIII in 1538 so infuriated the King that he was thereafter irreconcilable with Rome.
Paul's last years were saddened by the death of his son and the stubbornness of his grandson, Ottavio, who took the part of the Emperor (Charles V) against him.43
On a brighter note, he was (like his predecessors) a friend of art and scholarship -- being the Pope who made Michelangelo architect-in-chief of St. Peter's. But he had his sometime protégé, Cellini, imprisoned -- which caused the 'outgoing' artist to describe Paul as, "one who had no faith in God or aught beside."
He was succeeded by Pope Julius III.
pekmez Drink made from the essence of raisins.  
Perde Kapısı Shawl Gate, Tower Gate Name given to either:
1) The doorway/gate, across from the black eunuch's mosque (see cami), leading to the Divan Tower stairway
2) Gate into the Palace near the Cariye Hastanesi
Bernardo di Betto
Italian Renaissance painter -- among whose works were portraits and frescos of Cem Sultan. Pinturicchio, who helped paint the Sistine Chapel, was a student of Perugino. His most important frescoes are in the Vatican and in the Siena cathedral library.83
Plantin, Christophe (Christoffel)
The great Flemish printer whose polyglot Bible (containing several versions in different languages) was finally published in 1568.  
PodoliaFormer region of importance on left bank of the middle Dniester River.Ottoman-age history: Incorporated in medieval kingdom of Poland 1431; held by Ottomans 1672-99, divided between Russian and Austria in 1772, eventually became part of Ukraine.50
[The] Pope
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Modern-day papal vestments...62
The leader of the Roman Catholic Church -- who resides in the Vatican City.

Popes from the reign of
Mehmed II (The Conqueror)
to the end of the Classical Age ~ 1600

1447-1455 *Nicholas V
1455-8 *Callistus III
1458-64 *Pius II
1464-71 Paul II
1471-84 *Sixtus IV
1484-92 Innocent VIII
1492-1503 *Alexander VI
1503 Pius III
1503-13 *Julius II
1513-21 *Leo X
1522-3 *Hadrian VI
1523-34 *Clement VII
1534-49 *Paul III
1550-5 *Julius III
1555 Marcellus II
1555-9 *Paul IV
1559-65 *Pius IV
1566-72 *Pius V
1572-85 *Gregory XIII
1585-90 *Sixtus V
1590 Urban VII
1590-1 Gregory XIV
1591 Innocent IX
1592-1605 *Clement VIII
Note: An * next to a Pope's name denotes that an article about him may be found in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church43. Popes whose names are underlined have an entry in this encyclopedia. Popes whose names are in bold letters will have an entry in this encyclopedia.
Popes (in the table at left) held 'office' from the start of the Italian Renaissance (from about the mid-15th Century) until the end of the Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire (around 1600). Many (all?) of the Popes of old were naughty boys indeed -- supporting mistresses (Pope Alexander's Vanozza Catanei), having children (Pope Alexander's Juan, Caesar, Lucrezia and Jofre), and practicing nepotism (e.g., Popes Alexander VI, Callistus III, Paul III, and Sixtus IV, whose nephew Pietro's papal income in 1471 topped $1,500,000 [today's currency]).
[The] Porte The name by which the Ottoman government was known.  

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