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Ottoman Age Notables -- Hayreddin Barbarossa (1470? - 1546), Admiral of the Ottoman Fleet from 1533 to 1546
Ottoman Admiral
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Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
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Sultans and Concubines and Eunuchs, oh my...!

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Ottoman Empire Index
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Term Meaning Comments
[Sounds] (5k bytes)

sofa room with a hearth  
'Barracks Officer' in the Janissaries. AKA Ortabaşı
-- and equivalent to a lieutenant, who often acted as the Çorbacı's aide. (Lit. Janitor or Barracks Attendant).

Barracks Officer in uniform.90
odalisque a female slave; a 'pleasure girl'.  
Odun Kapısı
[Sounds] (5k bytes)

[Wood] Fuel Gate  
Old Palace See Eski Saray.  
Onluk Kapı
[Sounds] (5k bytes)

Gate of the Ten.  
[Sultan] Orhan (Orkhan)

First Ottoman to claim the title 'Sultan'18

The Second Ottoman Ruler and first to use the title Sultan. Reigned 1326-1362. 1326 Ottoman's conquer Bursa (6 April); Osman Gazi dies and Orhan ascends. 1327 First Ottoman silver coin (akçe) minted in Bursa. 1331 Ottoman's conquer Nicaea (Iznik). 1332 Umur Bey's first Balkan expedition. 1333 Orhan's victory over Andronicus III (see Palaeologus Family) at Pelekanon. 1335 The fall of the Mongol Empire in Iran. 1337 The Ottoman conquest of Nicomedia (Izmit). 1341-7 Civil War within Byzantine. 1344 Crusaders capture the fort of Izmir. 1345 Ottomans annex principality of Karesi; Umur Bey's last Balkan expedition. 1346 Orhan marries Theodora, daughter of John VI Cantacuzenus, Byzantine Pretender. 1352 Orhan grants "capitulations" to the Genoa; Ottoman's begin conquest of Thrace; Süleyman, Sultan Orhan's son, in Adrianople; Süleyman occupies Tzympe. 1353-6 War between Genoa and Venice. 1354 Ottoman occupation of Ankara and Gallipoli (2 March); John V Palaeologus in Constantinople; John Cantacuzenus abdicates. 1355 Stefan Dusan dies (20 December) -- Serbian Empire dissolved. 1357 Süleyman dies in accident; Ottoman-Byzantine peace. 1359 Prince Murad pursues Ottoman conquests in Thrace; Tsouroullos (Çorlu) and Didymoteiclyos (Dimetoka) fall. 1361 Murad conquers Adrianople (Edirne). 1362 Orhan dies; Murad I ascends; revolt against Ottomans in Anatolia.
orta A Janissary battalion.  
Orta Imam

Battalion 'chaplain'90
Janissary battalion 'chaplain'.  
Orta Kapısı
[Sounds] (5k bytes)

Median Gate. See Bab-üs Selam.  
Oruç (Aruj) Barbarossa

Right click to 'View' or 'Zoom' image enlargement...

Portrait of the one called Silver Arm...72

Right click to 'View' or 'Zoom' image enlargement...

Oruç Barbarossa thwarts his captures...
Illustration by Léopold Flameng and Charles Farine,
Duex Pirates (1869)
(Our apologies for the quality of this [hard to find] illustration...)

The above drawing (which was rendered well after the incident in question) depicts Oruç overpowering his would-be papal captors about 1505. According to the story, Oruç and his raiders had been seized and taken aboard the enemy ship. While the Italians looted his galliot, Oruç suddenly knifed his guard, and his men slaughtered the Christians with their own weapons.73

Older brother of Hayreddin Barbarossa (Ottoman Naval hero and Admiral of the Ottoman Fleet). Until his death in battle in 1518, Oruç was by far the more famous of these two dominating Ottoman naval figures.
Oruç (Aruj) began his career as a Barbary pirate in the Mediterranean. He was the creator -- with his younger brother Hayreddin (Kheireddin)of the Barbary States. The brothers' nickname Barbarossa ("Red Beard") referred to their carrot-colored hair and also may be a corruption of Baba Oruç ("Father Oruç"). Oruç was the next to oldest of four brothers born to a retired Muslim solder and a Greek priest's daughter on the island of Lesbos (Midilli). The natives of Lesbos (a haven for Italian, Catalonian, and Greek corsairs) remained pirates after the Ottoman conquest in 1462 by Sultan Mehmed II. On one voyage, the Knights of Rhodes captured Oruç and made him a galley slave. After his ransom or escape, an Egyptian emir outfitted the brothers as corsairs. By about 1504 or 1505, Oruç and Hayreddin (Kheireddin) had moved to the western Mediterranean. The sultan of Tunis allowed them to use his ports, and they operated from the island of Djerba. Off Elba, Oruç's small galliots captured two much larger papal galleys. Later they took a Sicilian warship with 370 Spanish soldiers near Lipari. Drawn by his fame, other Levantine corsairs joined Oruç's band until he commanded perhaps a dozen vessels. During these same years, Spanish forces had occupied forts controlling the major ports. In 1512, the exiled ruler of Bougie invited the corsairs to drive out the Spanish. A cannon ball broke off Oruç's arm, and his men retreated in disorder. This incident earned him the sobriquet 'Gumuş Kol' ('Silver Arm' -- in reference to the 'prosthetic device' he used in place of his missing limb). A second assault on Bougie in 1514 almost succeeded, until Spanish reinforcements arrived. After this second failure, Oruç settled at the small port of Chercell (Djidjelli), east of Algiers. The Tunisian sultan had turned against the Barbarossa brothers, but they received considerable aid from the Ottoman sultan, Selim I. More importantly, they had won the esteem of the native peoples, who asked for their help against Spanish troops. In 1516, Oruç's army of corsairs and tribesmen occupied Chercell and Algiers. Although the Spanish retained their fort (Peñón) in the harbor until 1529, Oruç controlled Algiers and had the existing sheikh assassinated. A savage storm destroyed a Spanish expedition attempting to retake Algiers in 1518, Despite Oruç's brutal seizure of power in Algiers, factions in other towns sought his aid. Leaving Hayreddin (Kheireddin) in charge of Algiers, he marched south and west, taking Miliana, Médëa, and Ténès. The inhabitants of Tlemcen, the former capital, turned against their sultan, a Spanish puppet. Oruç quickly captured the city, and he seemed on the verge of creating a new kingdom. However, a Spanish expeditionary force, marching from Oran with some local warriors, trapped him in Tlemcen. After a six-month siege, Oruç and his few remaining corsairs fled by night but were caught and massacred by the Spaniards.73
Chronology of Events
1464 Oruç is born 1466 September Hayreddin is born 1492 4 January Grenada (Gırnata) falls 1502-1503 Oruç settles in Tunis and Jerba (Djerba [Turkish: Cerbe]) -- an island off the coast of Tunis. 1504 July Oruç captures papal two galleys 1505 23 October Mers el Kebir meydani -- in the hands of the Spanish. 1509 May Cardinal Ximenes begins an African Crusade. Oran taken by the Spaniards 1510 Penon Castel in Algeria is captured by the Spaniards. 1512 26 May Sultan Selim I ascends to the Ottoman throne. 1512 August Oruç's first unsuccessful attempt at entry into Becaye(?) 1514 Spring Again Oruc tries Becaye, again he fails. 1516 January Catholic Ferdinand dies. Charles V becomes King of Spain. Oruç is called by Selim El Tumi the Algerian Sultan (?). 1516 24 August Selim I invades Egypt. The Ottomans win first victories over the Egyptian Mameluks.. 17 September Selim El Tumi dies... 30 September Commander-in-chief Diego de Vera's Spanish Navy comes to Algiers. 1517 June First the ruler of Ténès (in Ued Cer -- west of Chercell in Algeria) Hamid el Abid, then of the ruler of Tlemsen (or Tlemcen -- a department of Algeria, see page 1211 Geog. Dict., Capital of Arab Sultante 1282, Abd-el-Kader's capital 1837-42, came under French 1842), Ebu Hammun are defeated. 1518 January to Mart Meşuar (in Algerian department of Tlemsen) placed under siege by Spanish. 1518 May After 6 months of seige, Oruç attempts escape but is killed in battle -- age 56... 1518 August Hugo de Moncade is routed in front of Algiers. 1519 Algiers/Algeria become an Ottoman state. H. Barbarossa given "Beylerbeyi" title by Sultan Suleyman. 1520 21 September The sultan of Tlemsen, Ebu Hammun, dies. Ottoman Sultan Selim I dies. 1522 25 December Sultan Suleyman, The Magnificent captures Rhodes. 1525 24 February French King Francis I is defeated at Pavia and made prisoner of war by Charles V. 1529 21 May H. Barbarossa becomes ruler of Penon. 1530-1532 Harbor built for Algiers and sea wars continue in the Mediterranean. 1532 Andrea Doria raids Morea, captures Coron (Karoni), establishes Spanish garrison -- precipitating long Christian/Ottoman struggle for control of the Med (Dupay's Mil Hist Encyc) 1533 August Hayreddin summoned to İstanbul and named Admiral of the Turkish Navy by Suleyman, The Magnificent. 1534 Hayreddin seizes Tunis 1534 l August Bosphorus opened to Italian? sailing ships?? 1534 20 August H. Barbarossa captures Bizerte and Halk El-Uved. 1535 21 July Charles V, takes charge of Halk El-Uved. 1536 Mart Grand Vizier Ibrahim assassinated on orders from Sultan Suleyman (at instigation of Hürrem)/ 1538 June Ottomans pitted against an alliance of Italy and Austria. 1538 27 September Sea victory at Prevaze. 1539 Islands off Castelnuovo, Venice ve Genoa captured. 1540 Mayis Preparations made by Charles V. 1541 July French Ambassador Runçon killed. 1541 October Charles V routed in front of Algiers. 1543 20 May Rumor of Hayreddin's marriage (Did he fall for Dona Maria, daughter of the Provincial Governor Reggio di Calabria -- and marry her?)
1543 Campaign to Provence. A lot of sieges.. 1544 Mayis-Temmuz Last Raids... 1546 4 Temmuz Hayreddin Barbarossa dies of natural causes at nearly 80.
Osman I
(aka Osman Gazi)

A fanciful (?) rendition of the founder, Osman (Gazi)...

A drawing of European origin.
Notice how the common European (mis)spelling
of Osman's name led Westerners to refer (incorrectly)
to the Ottoman (not the Osmanlı) Empire...
Founder of the Ottoman Empire, Born c. 1254, died c.1326; reigned c. 1281 to c. 1326. Chronology of Events;
1261-1310 Turkish Muslim Gazi's establish principalities in western Anatolia -- including the OSMANLI (Ottoman). 1269 Turkish Gazi's invade Byzantine ports (Caria). 1301 Osman Gazi is victorious at Baphaeon. 1304 Byzantine enlists Catalans against the Turks; the Turks of Menteşe take Ephesus. 1308 The Aydin Turks conquer Pyrgion (Birgi); Mesūd II, the last Seljuk sultan, dies. 1313 The Saruhan Turks conquer Magnesia (Manisa) ; outbreak of civil war in Byzantine. 1326 The Ottoman conquest of Bursa (6 April) ; death of Osman Gazi and the accession of Orhan Sultan.
Osman III Köşkü Sultan Osman III's kiosk  

[Sounds] (3k bytes)

The Ottoman (Osmanlı) Empire and
the Ottoman Sultans

The Ottoman Empire
during the reign of Mehmed, The Conqueror
about 15 years after he took Constantinople...
Genealogy of the Sultans
  • Name, Nickname (Translation)
  • Dates of Reign
  • Osman I
    (The Holy Warrior)
    Orhan 1326-1362
    Murad I
    (The God-like One)
    Bayezid I
    YILDIRIM (Thunderbolt)
    Interregnum 1403-1413
    Mehmed I
    (The Executioner)
    Murad II 1421-1444 and 1446-1451
    Mehmed II
    (The Conqueror)
    1444-6 and 1451-81
    Bayazid II
    (The Guardian)
    Selim I
    (The Grim)
    Süyleman I
    (The Magnificent)
    Selim II
    (The Sot)
    Murad III 1574-1595
    Mehmed III 1595-1603
    Ahmed I (Ahmet I) 1603-1617
    Mustafa I 1617-18 and 1622-23
    Osman II 1618-1622
    Murad IV
    (Murat IV)
    (The Crazy)
    Mehmed IV
    (The Hunter)
    Süleyman II 1687-1691
    Ahmed II 1691-1695
    Mustafa II 1695-1703
    Ahmed III 1703-1730
    Mahmud I 1730-1754
    Osman III 1754-1757
    Mustafa III 1757-1774
    Abdülhamid I 1774-1789
    Selim III 1789-1807
    Mustafa IV 1807-1808
    Mahmud II 1808-1839
    Abdülmecid I 1839-1861
    Abdülaziz 1861-1876
    Murad V 1876
    Abdülhamid II
    (The Damned)
    Mehmed (V) Reşad 1909-1918
    Mehmed (VI) Vahideddin 1918-1922
    Abdülmecid II (Caliph only) 1922-1924
    Chronology of Events --
    Until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453
    Osman I victorious at Baphaeon, 1301
    Selçuks overthrown, death of Mesud II -- the last Selçuk sultan, 1308
    Bursa [Prusa] taken, death of Osman I, ascension of Orhan, 1326
    Iznik [Nicaea] falls, 1331
    Izmid [Nicomedia] taken, 1337
    Orhan marries Theodora, daughter of John VI Cantacuzenus -- pretender to the Byzantine throne
    Gelibolu [Kallipolis] taken by Süleyman, Osman I's son, 1354
    Ankara [Angora] occupied, 1354
    Süleyman, Osman I's favorite son, killed in accident, 1357
    Edirne [Adrianople] taken by Murad -- Orhan's next, heir-apparent son, 1361
    Orhan dies, Murad I ascends, 1362
    Murad makes conquests in Thrace and southern Bulgaria, 1363-1365
    The Pope announces a crusade against the Ottomans, 1366
    Ottomans defeat crusading Serbians at Chermanon, 1371
    John V Palaeologus, with Ottoman support, re-occupies the Byzantine throne, 1379
    Ottomans conquer Sofia, 1385
    Murad victorious at Kossovo, but is assassinated after the battle, Bayezid I ascends, 1389
    Ottomans blockading Constantinople, 1394-1402
    Bayezid in the Morea, 1394
    Successful Ottoman expeditions in Hungary. Wallachia becomes a vassal Ottoman state. Venice, Hungary and Byzantine ally against the Ottomans, 1395
    Tamerlane sacks Sivas, 1400
    Bayezid I, defeated, captured and imprisoned by Tamerlane, Battle of Ankara, 1402
    Bayezid commits suicide in captivity, 1403
    Interregnum (1403-1413) - In a short while Tamerlane 'loses interest', returns home, and dies in 1405. But the Ottomans are in disarray, and Bayezid's sons (Süleyman Çelebi, Musa, Mustafa, and Mehmed) battle one another during this period to determine the Ottoman successor.
    Bayezid's son, Mehmed I unites the Ottomans after final defeat of his brother Musa, 1413
    Mehmed I dies, Murad II ascends and expands the Empire, 1421
    Murad II retires in favor of young Mehmed II, 1444.
    Grand Vizier Halil Pasha successfully pleads for Murad's return, until the boy reaches a more mature age. (Young Mehmed will not forget this affront by Halil, as we shall see just below), 1446
    Mehmed II re-ascends to the throne after his father dies of stroke, 1451
    Mehmed II (The Conqueror) takes İstanbul [Constantinople] and has Halil Pasha beheaded for 'treason', 1453
    Ottoman flags
    (pennants, banners, and standards)40

    Right click to 'View' or 'Zoom' image enlargement...

    Regular Ottoman Army flags, pennants, etc...

    See also Janissary flags  

    Detailed Ottoman History Map53
    Left click the map to view image enlargement...

    From 1326 to 1683

    Left click the map to view image enlargement...
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