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Identify this humiliating scene
Ottoman Age Notables... The Serbian wife of Ottoman Sultan 'Yıldırım' Beyazit I makes a play for Tamerlane, her husband's conqueror.
after the Battle of Ankara (1402).
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Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
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Sultans and Concubines and Eunuchs, oh my...!

Site visitors may navigate the encyclopedia using the
Ottoman Empire Index
or the
Encyclopedia Sources Page.
Term Meaning Comments

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The 'West'.  

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A Westerner, an Occidental  
Garp Ocakları

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The North African dominions of the Ottoman Empire (Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria)  
Gate of the Akağalar See Bab-i-Saadet.  
Gate of the Aviary
(Kuşhane Kapısı)
The northwest corner gate in the Third Court of Topkapı Palace (in the vicinity of The Golden Way inside) used by the Sultan and his concubines for entering/exiting the Harem.Kösem Sultan was executed at this spot in 1651.
Gate of the Dead, Corpse Gate See Meyyit Kapısı.  
Gate (Door) of the White Eunuchs See Bab-i-Saadet.  
  1. A derogatory term for a foreigner.
  2. A giaour, infidel, unbeliever, non-Muslim, Christian.
  3. Godless, heathen, irreligious; cruel, heartless wretch.
gaza (also seen as, 'ghaza')

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Holy War, the purpose of which was to extend the domain of Islam.  
gazi (also seen as, 'ghazi')

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Ottoman Gazi/Ghazi
and other 14th C. warriors
Ottoman Gazi and other 14th Century warriors.
Thanks to Men at Arms40
Generally speaking, someone who has been an Ottoman war hero or veteren. One who has waged gaza.
  • a victorious fighter for the Islamic faith
  • a title given to a victorious Muslim military leader: Osman Gazi, Gazi Mustafa Kemal Paşa
  • gazis/ghazis fought in traditional Islamic style as mixed cavalry and infantry
  • gazel

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    Traditional lyric poems.  

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    Regular guest, constant frequenter Young girls upon whom the Sultan had 'rested his gaze'.
    Patrick Gennadios Scolarious

    First Patriarch of the Greek Orthodox millet, in Constantinople after it's fall in 1453. Mehmed II granted Gennadious the position -- and his followers their freedom of religion -- shortly after he conquered İstanbul.
    al-Ghazali (Ghazzali)
    Full name was Abu-Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali.

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    Arab philosopher, one of the most prominent figures of Moslem religious thought. In his writings, he was suspicious of human reason and intellectualism -- preaching against the 9th century Islamic philosopher and medical writer (and proponent of human reason), Abu Bakr al-Razi.
    Was a well-respected teacher at Baghdad (1091-1095), but, at one point (of crisis in his religious convictions), he gave up teaching to live the life of an ascetic. "Worldly desires began tugging at me with their claims to remain as I was, while the herald of faith was crying out, 'Away, Up and away!'" When he returned to active religious life and teaching it was 'with a vengeance -- sweeping away Islamic proponents of human intellect. He came to believe that "reasoned argument in defense of the Islam should not be practiced by those whose faith might be troubled by it, nor should it be used to build a structure of thought which went beyond what was given in the Koran and Hadith. It was a matter only for specialists, working independently outside the schools."42 One of his most famous writings was The Deliverer from Error. Somewhat autobiographical, the work traces the path by which he reached his mature conclusions.
    "He became convinced that he could not find what he needed from intellect alone. To follow the path of the [Greek] philosophers and construct the truth of the universe from first principles was to be lost in a morass of illicit innovations. The Shia path was dangerous; it might lead to an abandonment of what had been given in revelation, for the sake of some inner truth, and an acceptance that he who knows that inner truth is free from the restraints of the shari'a."42
    His beliefs greatly influenced historic Islamic 'conservatism' and distrust of modernity. He is sometimes called (by Westerners) the "Father of the Church of Islam"...
    giaourA nonbeliever in the Muslim faith; especially, a Christian. [Turkish gavur (giaur), infidel -- from Persian gaur, variant of gabr, fire worshiper.]
    Also see gavur.
    Girit Crete  
    [The] Golden WaySee Altınyol. 

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    'under the eye' A 'new' favorite slave girl of the Sultan.
    Grand Vizier/Vezir
    (sadr-ı azam, sadrazam,
    vezir-i azam

    A Grand Vizier 8
    The highest ranking Ottoman official after the Sultan.

    See also, The Grand Viziers of Süleyman, The Magnificent.

    At various times, the Grand (First) Vizier was given full deputy powers by the Sultan over the Empire. And under a weak or incompetent sultan, the Grand Vizier often ruled the Empire.

    A depiction of the moon --
    from Gurrename (16th C.)
    An Ottoman book -- concerned with the first day(s) of the lunar month(s).See also burclar, for astrological signs...
    Johann Gutenberg

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    The man credited with the invention of the printing press (in the 'West', at least.) Born in Mainz, Germany about 1400, little is known with certainty of his early life. He seems to have entered into a contract with Andreas Dryzehn or Dritzehn and others in 1436 -- in which he agreed to teach his partners the secret of his 'arts', so that they might result in a 'common advantage'. When Dryzehn died in 1438, 'the company' dissolved. When in 1448, Gutenberg returned to Mainz he formed another alliance with Johann Fust or Faust, a rich goldsmith. Fust furnished the money and Gutenberg his 'secrets' -- and the first Latin Bible was printed around 1455. (Just two years after Mehmed the Conqueror took Constantinople.) About the 'Gutenberg Bible': It is also known as the Mazarin Bible (because it was discovered in Cardinal Mazarin's library in 1760). Work on it began about 1450 and it was completed about 1455. The book is too technically excellent to have really been Gutenberg's first printing effort, and it's known now that it was preceded by a number of earlier and less perfect attempts, including several editions of Aelius Donatus's AT-S Grammatica, and a missal printed at Constance between 1448 and 1452. These earlier works, in types which can almost certainly be attributed to Gutenberg, show the progressive development of the various techniques that culminated in the perfection of the Gutenberg 42-line Bible.55

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