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Ottoman Age Notables... Beatrice Cenci (1577  1599); Italian noblewoman executed hideously for her part in the murder of her incestuous father, the Aristocrat Francesco Cenci.
Ottoman Age Murderess
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Habibullah's
Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
AND HER TIMES
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Sultans and Concubines and Eunuchs, oh my...!


Site visitors may navigate the encyclopedia using the
Ottoman Empire Index
or the
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F
Term Meaning Comments
falakacı The military unit [or a member of the unit] responsible for administering the 'bastinado' [sole beating] to wrong-doers that the Grand Vizier might come across during his tours of the streets [in İstanbul, mostly].  
falakacıbaşı
Uniformed captain of the falakacı 90
Captain of the falakacı military unit.  
Farnese, Alessandro
(b.1468 - d.1549)
See [Pope] Paul III  
Fas
  1. Morocco
  2. Fès or Fez (city in Morocco, NE of Casablanca)
  3. Moroccan, of Morocco
  4. Fez, of Fez
 
Faslı
  1. Moroccan (or a Moroccan person)
  2. Fezzi (a person from Fez)
 
Fatih'in 'Viagra' Formülü
(Male Potency formula prescribed for
Mehmed II, The Conqueror)


In those days, Ottoman Turkish was written in near-Arabic Script...11
Rough translation of the text in the illustration..."Scientists of yesteryear (i.e., before the 15th Century) stated: Take a sliver of iron but let it age a bit. Then, crush the iron sliver (all night if necessary) until it turns to dust. Afterwards, in a separate container, mash one and a half drachmas (about 4.5 grams) of coconut and then mix it together with [some] buckthorn oil (bot. Rhamnus chlorophorus globosus). Go to the public bath and first massage your 'tool' with hot water. Then massage in the iron powder thoroughly, and spread the ointment of coconut and buckthorn oil on the top. The medicine's effect will be immediate and it will be useful for the length of three days. When necessary you can use the same medicine again to obtain immediate benefit." This formula also found in the 'Bahname' by Nasıreddin-i Tusi.
ferace

[Sounds] (5k bytes)

A long shapeless over-garment reaching the ankle.  
Ferdinand I (of Naples)
(1423-94)
King of Naples (1458-94). He was the illegitimate son of King Alfonso I of Naples, who was also king of Aragon and Sicily as Alfonso V. His crafty and cruel character provoked civil wars from 1458 to 1462 and in 1485 and alienated Pope Callistus III in 1458 and Pope Innocent VIII from 1484 to 1492. During Ferdinand's reign the printing press was introduced (1474) into Naples, and the Ottoman Turks occupied (1480-81) Otranto.18
ferman (firman)

[Sounds] (5k bytes)

An edict of the sultan.  
fesSee fez. 
FèsSee Fas (2 and 4). 
fetwa (fetva or fatwa)

[Sounds] (5k bytes)

1) A written answer to a legal question (issued by the şeyhülislam or other mufti).
2) A judgment of a molla.
 
fez
[Sounds] (5k bytes)


The last Ottoman Sultan,
Mehmet IV wearing his religion on his sleeve, er, head...

A flat topped conical red cap (often with a hanging tassel) worn by most Muslims before Turkey became a republic, it's shape facilitates ritual Islamic prayer without the need to remove the headgear. Thus it became a striking symbol of the pre-republic Islamic Ottoman state...
The symbolic banning of the fez by Atatürk was one of many Kemalist reforms (see right panel) which included the granting of women's suffrage in 1934 -- when the Turkish Republic was just 12 years old. By comparison, it took the United States 144 years to grant its female citizens the right to vote!
Compare to the kalpak...
The fez was banned by Atatürk in 1925 -- as part of his secularization of the Turkish republic; the banning was a symbolic gesture -- other of his reforms dug deep at the (by then) decayed Ottoman heart.
Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms
1922 sultanate abolished [November 1]. 1923 Treaty of Lausanne secured [July 24]. Republic of Turkey with capital at Ankara proclaimed [October 29]. 1924 Caliphate abolished [March 3]. Traditional religious schools closed, Islamic law (şeriat) courts abolished. Constitution adopted [April 20]. 1925 Dervish brotherhoods (tarikatlar) abolished. Fez outlawed by the Hat Law [November 25]. Western clothing introduced; veiling of women discouraged. Western (Gregorian) calendar adopted. 1926 New civil, commercial, and penal codes based on European models adopted. New civil code ended Islamic polygamy and divorce by renunciation and introduced civil marriage. Millet system ended. 1927 First systematic census. 1928 New Turkish alphabet (modified Latin form) adopted (see modern language history). State declared secular [April 10]; constitutional provision establishing Islam as official religion deleted. 1933 Islamic call to worship and public readings of the Kuran required to be in Turkish rather than Arabic. 1934 Women given the vote and the right to hold office. Law of Surnames adopted -- Mustafa Kemal given the name Atatürk (Father Turk) by the Grand National Assembly; Ismet Pasha took surname of Inonü. 1935 Etatism (state capitalist control of public sector) written into the constitution. Sunday adopted as legal holiday. Source: Based on information from Bernard Lewis, The Emergence of Moderm Turkey (2d ed.), New York, 1968; and Roderic H. Davison, Turkey, Englewood Cliffs, 1968.51
FezSee Fas (2 and 4). 
FezziSee Faslı (2). 
flags, pennants, and standards

See Ottoman flags and
Janissary flags...
 
Francis I (1494-1547)

Will Durant opines, "He was too reckless and impetuous to be a great commander, too lighthearted and fond of pleasure to be a great statesman, too fascinated by appearances to get to essences, too amiably influenced by favorites and mistresses to choose the best available generals and ministers, too open and frank to be a competent diplomat. His sister Marguerite grieved over his incapacity for government, and foresaw that the subtle but inflexible Emperor [Charles V] would unhorse him in their lifelong joust. Louis XII [his predecessor], who admired him as "a fine young gallant," saw with foreboding the lavish hedonism of his successor. "All our work is useless," he said; "this great boy will spoil everything." "35
~~~
Compare Francis I with Süleyman I
Compare Francis I with Charles V
Compare Francis I with Henry VIII
King of France (1515-47), of Angouleme branch of house of Valois; son of Charles, Count of Angouleme, and Louise of Savoy. In his wars against his arch-rival Charles V (Holy Roman Empire) he often sought and received the active and effective support of Süleyman I, The Magnificent. But he was not much of a reciprocal ally to Süleyman. At crucial moments, under Christian pressures, he twice reneged on battle arrangements with the Sultan.
Francis was a fervent supporter of the arts. For example, it was for Francis that Cellini sculpted the solid-gold Salt Cellar. And it was Francis who offered Leonardo da Vinci the comforts of the Manor House of Cloux -- where the old master passed his final days (between 1516-1519 near the great castle at Amboise) in blissful tinkering while an admiring Francis looked on.
The one major blot on Francis' personal record came in 1545-6 when, in an ailing condition which would soon lead to his own death, he allowed (encouraged?) vicious persecutions of Protestants. That he did so is somewhat puzzling in light of the fact that his adored sister Marguerite of Navarre was a Protestant sympathizer, who often interceded with her brother on behalf of Protestant refugees. Furthermore, he himself was often seen courting Protestant alliances (although this may have only been to anger his arch enemy, the very Catholic Emperor Charles V). But, we do notice that after he re-confirmed his catholic orthodoxy during 1527-8, he was frightened and angered whenever he witnessed Protestant 'excesses.' And, when in 1545 the Cardinal de Toran persuaded the ailing king to sign a decree against the Waldenses Protestant sect, it resulted in the slaughter of more than 3,000 men, women, and children.
Chronology of Events
during his lifetime:34
Born in Cognac 1494; married Claude de France; daughter of Louis XII (1514). Succeeded Louis XII to French throne (1515). War with the Holy League; victorious in Marignano campaign (1515) in northern Italy, gaining possession of Lombardy; made concordat with Pope Leo X (1516); outbid for Holy Roman Imperial Throne by Charles I of Spain (Emperor Charles V), begins life-long feud with Charles (1519), entertained Henry VIII of England at Field of the Cloth of Gold, near Guines (1520); by lack of tact drove constable Bourbon to side with enemies (1522-23). Began long series of wars against Holy Roman Empire (Charles V); in first war (1521-25), defeated by Charles and taken prisoner at Pavia (1523); released (Treaty of Madrid; 1526) after giving up Burgundy and making other, extreme concessions; broke pledges; waged second war with Charles (1527-29), losing Italy by treaty of peace signed for him by his mother (Paix des Dames; at Carnbrai, 1529); conducted third war (1536-38), renewed war (1542) with victory over Charles V's forces at Ceresole Alba (1544). Possessed a love for letters and arts; his reign marked by Renaissance in France. See Marguerite (Margaret) of Navarre, his sister.

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