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Ottoman Age Notables... The Mongol conqueror Tamerlane (Timur), humiliated Sultan Beyazit I at Battle of Ankara (1402) ushering in the Interregnum
Ottoman Age Conqueror
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Habibullah's
Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
AND HER TIMES

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Sultans and Concubines and Eunuchs, oh my...!

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Term Meaning Comments
[Battle of] Çaldıran [also, Chaldiran]

Despite the 'climactic' Ottoman victory at Çaldıran (and the subsequent Ottoman occupation of the Safavid capital, Tabriz), the Safavids bounced back under Şah Ismail's leadership -- and soon nullified most of the Ottoman gains...
The most significant outcome of the Battle of Chaldiran, however, was the subsequent incorporation into the Ottoman state of the Kurdish principalities in eastern Anatolia and the Turkmen principality of Dulkadir in the Maras-Elbistan region (1515). Thenceforth Ottomans not only had a rampart against eastern invaders but also controlled the Tabriz-Aleppo and Tabriz-Bursa silk trade routes. 66

Right click to 'View' or 'Zoom' image enlargement...

In Iran at the town of Esfahan (Isfahan) there's a monument called Chihil Sutun [or Şihil Sütun or Chehel Sotone] ("The Hall of the Forty Columns"). In it you'll find this mural, depicting Şah Ismail killing an Ottoman sipahi during the Battle Of Chaldiran. Note that Ismail sports [only] a bushy mustache (the trademark of his Ottoman counterpart, Sultan Selim I) -- which fuels a small controversy about the authenticity of one of Selim I's portraits...80

The 'momentous' battle in 1514 between the Shiite Persian forces of Şah Ismail and the Sunni Ottoman forces of Sultan Selim I.
Between May and August 1514, Ismail's Safavids (who recognized the superiority of Selim's advancing army), retreated to avoid open battle -- leaving a 'scorched earth' in their wake. Their hope was to lure the Sultan into the mountains of northern Iran -- which provided a more advantageous fighting terrain for the smaller Safavid force. But when Selim let it be known that he planned to strike at the Safavid capital (Tabriz), Ismail decided to engage the Sultan in the valley of Çaldıran (in Anatolia, northeast of Lake Van).
The Battle of Chaldiran
August 23, 1514.
Selim I deployed his army on the Plains of Chaldiran in front of the Persians, protected by a screen of irregular cavalry and infantry. Behind this screen the infantry Janissaries (mixed archers and arquebusiers) formed behind a hastily dug trench. The flanks were protected by carts chained together, and in front of these carts, to the right and left front of the Janissaries, was the Turkish artillery, roped together wheel to wheel. On either side of this semi-fortified position were the royal cavalry guards (sipahis), with the feudal Ottoman light cavalry (timariot) units extending the line farther to the flanks. The Persians attacked, drove off the screen of irregular cavalry, routed the European timariots on the Turkish right, but were repulsed in a hard fight by the Asiatic timariots of the left. The sipahis and Janissaries stood fast, repulsing repeated attacks by the Persian left. The Turkish left then swung around to engage the remainder of the Persian army in a violent struggle in which Ismail was wounded and his army routed. The Persians fled to Khoi, abandoning their camp and its provisions to the starving Turks. Casualties are unreported, but it is doubtful if the Persians lost more heavily than the Turks, since they were able to retreat rapidly and without effective Turkish pursuit.25
çamaşırlık
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Laundry of the harem.  
çamaşır ustası
[Sounds] (2k bytes)

Overseer of the laundry.  
Çandarlı (Çendereli) Family The famous family that provided Grand Viziers to the Ottoman Court for about two hundred years. The 'roots' of the family tree:
Çandarlı (Çendereli) Family,
Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (1305-86)
Educated at a medrese, he was a relative of Osman Gazi's father-in-law. Under Sultan Orhan he was kadı of Iznik. He has been given credit by some historians as creator of the Janissary Corps and the institution of a permanent army. Murad/Murat I (who named him Hayreddin) esteemed him too, making him chief military judge and grand vizier. A major contributor to the rise of the young Ottoman state, he was killed during the liberation of Serez. His grave may be found still -- outside Iznik's eastern gate.  
Çandarlı (Çendereli) Family,
Ali Pasha (d.1407)
Son of Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha. Upon his father's death, Ali became Murat I's grand vizier. Ali held the same post under Beyazit I (Yildirim). His gravesite may also be found outside Iznik's eastern gate.  
Çandarlı (Çendereli) Family,
Ibrahim Pasha (d.1428)
Another son of Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha, he was grand vizier for Mehmet I and Murat II for twenty years. He was both a statesman and a warrior. His gravesite is within Iznik's eastern walls.  
Çandarlı (Çendereli) Family,
Halil Pasha(d.1453)
Son of the first Ibrahim Pasha, was chief military judge and grand vizier under Murat II. Mehmed II (Fatih) inherited him as grand vizier, but Halil's fate had been sealed by actions he had taken to thwart Mehmed's ascension during 1444-1446. So quite soon after Mehmed 'liberated' Constantinople, he first jailed Halil Pasha -- and then had him executed. That made him the first (though not the last!) grand vizier in Ottoman history to be executed. The clergy was grieved. He had been a powerful man -- with a very deep influence on Ottoman affairs. His gravesite is inside Iznik's walls approaching the town center from the east gate.  
Çandarlı (Çendereli) Family,
Mahmut Çelebi
Another son of the first Ibrahim Pasha (thus, Halil Paşa's brother). He was a close relation of Murat II by marriage. Mahmut was follower of the Mesnevi dervish order, as the wadded turban on his grave showed. Taken prisoner during a Hungarian campaign, he was freed on payment of ransom. He built his own gravesite and is buried at Iznik.  
Çandarlı (Çendereli) Family,
Ibrahim Pasha, the second (d.1499)
Ibrahim Pasha (died 1499). He played a role in the conquest of Constantinople. He was grand vizier under Beyazit II, and he died in battle at Bolayir. His tomb is in Iznik.  
çavuş(lar)
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Sergeants Sultan's guards.
Çelebi (1) A title of respect, given to men of the upper classes.
(2) A title of the leader of a religious order, especially of the Mevlevis.
The literal meaning is:
1) well-bred, educated
2) gentleman
Çellet Çeşme

Out, damned spots! Out!
Executioner's Fountain. Just before entering Topkapı's Second Courtyard through the Gate of Salutations (Bab-üs Selam), you ought to pause a moment at the fountain you'll see on the right facing wall (as shown in the illustration at left). It's there that human heads were routinely placed -- as a confirmation and warning to the outside world, that, in the inner sancta, you'd better mind your manners! In the 19th Century, the Sultan (Abdülhamid, The Damned) had the fountain 'disguised' -- in order to avoid giving the wrong impression -- for the visit to the Palace of Wilhelm II of Germany. And it remained that way until the Palace was made a museum in 1924, at which point it was restored to its original condition for the sake of authenticity.
Çengi

Three Dancing Çengis from the 19th Century4
Female dancing troupes that flourished in İstanbul during the 18th and 19th Centuries. The dancers were often lesbians who usually performed for wealthy all-women audiences, among whom they frequently sought (and found) 'sugar-mommy' lovers.
An excerpt from:
The Contributions of Multi-nationality to Classic Ottoman Music (Özdemir)...
"The second important instrument in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was the çeng, a small harp (see Neubauer, 523). The çeng was used both by court musicians and itinerant musicians in the city. The players of the çeng in the city were mainly Gypsy women.
Guillaume Postel, who was sent by Francoise I of France in the 1530s as the scientific attachè to Ambassador La Forest in İstanbul, saw Gypsy women in places of entertainment, and they were all playing the çeng, the def (tambourine), and the calpara (a pair of wooden clappers or castanets) [pp. 18-19]. The Danish painter Melchior Lorichs, who visited İstanbul in the sixteenth century, made engravings representing Gypsy women playing the çeng (see the collection of paintings published by Ward-Jackson). The French traveller De Loir, who spent eighteen months in İstanbul in 1639-1640, states that the word çengi derives from the çeng -- and that the meaning of the term çengi is both a) çeng player and b) dancer who dances to the çeng music (173-174). This etymological information refers to the relation between the çeng and Çingene (Gypsy) because all the çengis were Gypsy women."
Lesbian Çengis wore white (especially, white scarves) when they performed -- as an indication of their inclinations. Çengis danced the 'rax' to the sound of the 'saz'. In his book 'Çenginame' (1759) Enderunlu Fazıl bey describes the most famous female (and some male) oriental dancers of his day.
Also see, köçek and marjinalleri.
Çenginame 'Book of the Çengi [Female] Dancers' Written (1759) by Enderunlu Fazıl Bey; describes the most famous female (and some male) oriental dancers of his day.
Çeribaşı 'Head of troops', an officer in the provinces commanding a detachment of timar holding sipahis.  
Çerkez a Caucasian/Circassian person, an inhabitant of Circassia, someone from the Caucasus region, someone from the southwestern region of the (old) Soviet Union (northwest of the Caucasus Mountains)...In Ottoman times, Caucasian/Circassian women were thought to be the most beautiful in the world -- and they were highly prized in the harem.
Click the image to see a full portrait and description of a Caucasian/Circassian woman in Ottoman times.
circassian woman with description
Çesmeli Sofa Vestibule of the Fountain. In Topkapı Palace, on the right after you pass through 'Carriage Gate'. A doorway leads to steps up the Tower of Justice -- to the 'grate' where the sultan (and others) could overhear the deliberations of the Divan.
Çıkma The graduation of the içoğlans to military or further Palace service.  
Çift A farm or unit of agricultural land, varying in size from 60 to 150 dönüms.  
Çift bozan akçesi 'Farm breaker's tax', a tax paid by a peasant to a timar-holding sipahi in compensation for having left the sipahi's land.  
Çift resmi 'Farm tax', a farm tax paid in cash by Muslim peasants (reaya) possessing one çift of land.  
Çizme Kapı 'Boot' Gate at Topkapı Palace Was in the First Court of Topkapı Palace. Once abutted on the now non-existent walls of the infirmary. Located on the right after passing through Bab-i Hümayun (Imperial Gate, Sultans Gate).
Çorbacı

The Maker of the Soup90
Colonel of the Janissaries
(Maker of the Soup).
Rank names of Janissary officers and men were often inspired by the Ottoman kitchen.
 
çubuk rod, bar Long-stemmed tobacco pipe.
See also, nargile.
Çuhadar The custodian of the sultan's outer garments.  

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