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Ottoman Age Notables... Sultan Suleyman The Magnificent, in ceremonial dress
Famous Ottoman Sultan
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Habibullah's
Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
AND HER TIMES
- C -

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Sultans and Concubines and Eunuchs, oh my...!

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C

Term Meaning Comments
caliphSee halife. 
calligraphy Fine handwriting -- brought to the level of art by Islamic hattatlar.
See also hattatlık.
See examples of Islamic calligraphy at celi, sülüs, nesih -- and at A famous Ottoman hattat.
camekan
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A glassy partition. Room used for undressing -- near the baths.
cami

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A proto-typical cami (mosque)...71
An Islamic mosque.
Compare with kilise.
 
cariye
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A group of 'slaves' at rest...

Female slaves. Novices, newcomers, servants...
Cariyeler Dairesi
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Apartments of the sultan's female slaves or novices.  
Cariyeler Hamamı
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Apres bath...

Female Slaves' baths.  
Cariyeler Hastanesi
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Hospital of the harem  
Cariyeler Mutfakları Small kitchen for the concubines.  
Carlos or V. Carlos
See Charles V.  
cellat odası Executioner's room.  
Celalı General meaning -- A rebel against the government during the 16th and 17th Centuries. Celalı movements first began in 1519 near Tokat, when Celal, a Safavid preacher (who took the name Şah Ismail) rebelled -- in reaction to taxes imposed by then Sultan Selim I. In the same year, Selim's Janissaries attacked and destroyed the rebel army and the movement, temporarily. But, it resumed under Celal's son, Tahmasp I (who ruled as the second Safavid Şah of Iran 1524-1576), during the reign of Süleyman I.
Celalıs were again troublesome and rebellious in Anatolia during 1596-1610. At that time they were mostly sekban and saruca mercenary bands that became bandits when unemployed (and who were joined by sipahis who'd lost their timars). A famous Celali was Kalender Celebi (who claimed descent from Haci Bektaş). Kalender's forces were finally subdued by Ibrahim Pasha in 1527 -- and Kalender was killed.
celi

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"The rank of science is the highest rank."
A work from the mid-1800s by Sultan Abdülmecid I
in the celi sülüs calligraphic style.78
A style of Islamic calligraphy (see also hattatlık) consisting of thick, large letters -- that makes the writing easily visible at a distance. 
Cellini, Benvenuto (1500-71)

Cellini's Pure Gold Salt Cellar for Francis I
Bridgeman Art Library
Florentine sculptor and engraver, who became one of the foremost goldsmiths of the Italian Renaissance, executing exquisitely crafted coins, jewelry, vases, and ornaments. He was also one of history's bigger-than-life characters. And, if we can believe his oft-fulsome accounts (he was his own greatest fan), then he was also, by turns, an expert marksman, an opium-eater, a necromancer, a prodigious lover of women (and boys on occasion) -- and even a murderer! Born in Florence, on November 3, 1500, Cellini was apprenticed to a goldsmith at the age of 15. When he was 16, his fiery temper and continual dueling and brawling caused him to be exiled to Siena. Later, in Rome, he was Michelangelo's pupil for a short while. Among Cellini's most famous patrons were Pope Clement VII, Pope Paul III, the Florentine noble Cosimo I d'Medici, and King Francis I of France. Francis I invited him to Paris in 1540, where he modeled the bronze reliefs of the Nymph of Fontainebleau. He also executed an elaborate gold saltcellar [see left panel] for Francis I -- working on it during 1539-43. Compelled to leave France in 1545 because of his quarrels with the king's mistress and because of his eccentricities, Cellini returned to Florence. There, under the patronage of Cosimo d'Medici, he executed many fine works in metal, among them a bronze portrait bust of Cosimo and the colossal bronze statue Perseus and Medusa (1545-54). He died in Florence, on February 13, 1571. Cellini is also noted for his autobiography [see next entry below], written between 1538 and 1562, the standard English version of which was published in 1960. It is an action packed (oft-embellished) account of Cellini's escapades, adventures, and intrigues, but, at the same time, it provides a very valuable portrait of daily, political, social, and ecclesiastical life in the 16th century.18
Cellini and Diego: "After many and many merry meetings [at Cellini's Artist's Club], it seemed good to our worthy president that for the following Sunday we should repair to supper in his house, and that each one of us should be obliged to bring with him his crow (such was the nickname Michel Agnolo gave to women in the club), and that whoso did not bring one should be sconced by paying a supper to the whole company. Those of us who had no familiarity with women of the town were forced to purvey themselves at no small trouble and expense, in order to appear without disgrace at that distinguished feast of artists. I had reckoned upon being well provided with a young woman of considerable beauty, called Pantasilea, who was very much in love with me; but I was obliged to give her up to one of my dearest friends called Il Bachiacca, who on his side had been, and still was, over head and ears in love with her. This exchange excited a certain amount of lover's anger, because the lady, seeing I had abandoned her at Bachiacca's first entreaty, imagined that I held in slight esteem the great affection which she bore me. In course of time a very serious incident grew out of this misunderstanding, through her desire to take revenge for the affront I had put upon her; whereof I shall speak hereafter in the proper place. Well, then, the hour was drawing nigh when we had to present ourselves before that company of men of genius, each with his own crow; and I was still unprovided; and yet I thought it would be stupid to fail of such a madcap bagatelle; but what particularly weighed upon my mind was that I did not choose to lend the light of my countenance in that illustrious sphere to some miserable plumeplucked scare-crow. All these considerations made me devise a pleasant trick, for the increase of merriment and the diffusion of mirth in our society. Having taken this resolve, I sent for a stripling of sixteen years, who lived in the next house to mine; he was the son of a Spanish coppersmith. This young man gave his time to Latin studies, and was very diligent in their pursuit. He bore the name of Diego, had a handsome figure, and a complexion of marvelous brilliancy; the outlines of his head and face were far more beautiful than those of the antique Antinous: I had often copied them gaining thereby much honour from the works in which I used them. The youth had no acquaintances, and was therefore quite unknown; dressed very ill and negligently; all his affections being set upon those wonderful studies of his. After bringing him to my house, I begged him to let me array him in the woman's clothes which I had caused to be laid out. He readily complied, and put them on at once, while I added new beauties to the beauty of his face by the elaborate and studied way in which I dressed his hair. In his ears I placed two little rings, set with two large and fair pearls: the rings were broken; they only clipped his ears, which looked as though they had been pierced. Afterwards I wreathed his throat with chains of gold and rich jewels, and ornamented his fair hands with rings. Then I took him in a pleasant manner by one ear, and drew him before a great looking-glass. The lad, when he beheld himself cried out with a burst of enthusiasm: 'Heavens! is [sic] that Diego?' I said: 'That is Diego, from whom until this day I never asked for any kind of favour; but now I only beseech Diego to do me pleasure in one harmless thing; and it is this -- I want him to come in those very clothes to supper with the company of artists whereof he has often heard me speak.' The young man, who was honest, virtuous, and wise, checked his enthusiasm, bent his eyes to the ground, and stood for a short while in silence. Then with a sudden move he lifted up his face and said: 'With Benvenuto I will go... Now let us start!'"
[From Cellini's Autobiography, The Symond's translation]
This episode from the real life of Cellini and the 16-year-old Diego was the model for a similar episode from the early life of the fictional Habibullah.
(Prince) Cem or Cem Sultan
(Also seen as, Jem, Djem)
(1459 -- 1495)

Young Prince Cem44

Bernard Lewis22 tells us that...
After a unsuccessful bid for the succession, Cem took refuge on the Island of Rhodes, then governed by the Knights of St. John, and in 1482 sailed from there to France. He tried, without success, to win support among the European rulers, who seem to have regarded him rather as a hostage or as a pawn to be used against the Turkish sultan. For a while he was virtually interned in France in the care of the Knights of St. John. He was accompanied by a small group of Turkish companions, one of whom, probably a certain Haydar, left a memoir which may well be the earliest surviving narrative by a Turkish visitor to Christian Europe. His brief notes on places and people in France and Italy show...[that] the prince stayed in Nice for four months, and seems to have amused himself quite well. Part of his entertainment consisted of going to balls where the author of the memoir, like many later Muslim travelers, was deeply shocked by this strange European custom: "They brought the beautiful maidens of the city, and they cavorted around like cocks. In their customs, the women do not cover themselves decently, but on the contrary are proud to kiss and embrace. If they grow tired of their games and need to rest, they sit on the knees of strange men. Their necks and ears are uncovered. Among them, the prince had relations with many beautiful girls." While he was in Nice the prince composed the following couplet:
"What a wonderful place is this city of Nice
A man who stays there can do as he please."

Note: The fictionalized Haydar 'plays' the father of the hero of Habibullah at the Ottoman Court.

One of the two sons of Mehmed II, The Conqueror -- and a Pretender to the throne. Upon Mehmed's death in 1481, Cem's brother, Bayezid II, ascended to the throne, Cem contested him in a losing battle, and was forced to flee Turkey, eventually finding his way to Europe. European rulers used Cem to keep Sultan Bayezid in check after that -- and he remained a prisoner of European luxury until his 'mysterious' death in Naples (1495).
A fictionalized Cem is featured in the adventure detective series, Habibullah at the Ottoman Court...


Cem's Italian Portrait
(now residing in Vatican City)
by his Italian contemporary, Pinturicchio58
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Chronology of Events:
1481 Death of Mehmed II (3 May); accession of Bayezid II (20 May); Battle of Yenişehir between Bayezid and Cem (20 June); surrender of the Ottoman forces in Otranto (11 September). 1482 Cem and Kasim Bey the Karamanid in Anatolia; Cem's flight to Rhodes (26 July); agreement on Cem between the Knights of St John and Bayezid II (September); execution of Gedik Ahmed Pasha (November). 1484 Bayezid II's campaign against Moldavia; annexation of Kilia and Akkerman. 1484-91 War with the
Mamluks of Egypt. 1482-1494 Cem lives in grand style with Turkish entourage, as celebrity captive in France and Italy 1495 Death of Cem in Naples (25 February).

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A miniature of Cem Sultan (in Karaman) being beseeched by a run-away Rumeli princess -- seeking shelter from the Christian husband who wants to kill her...82

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Prince Cem battles his brother,
Bayezid II, at Yenişehir...in an historic
German woodcut of that time58

The Rise and Fall of Prince Cem ! "By the time Cem learned of his father Mehmed II's death, it was too late for him to prevent [his brother] Bayezid II's accession. Thus he went to Bursa, summoned all his supporters along with those Turkomans and Muslims of Anatolia who had long resented devşirme rule in Istanbul, and declared himself Sultan of Anatolia (May 28, 1481); he proposed division of the empire, with Bayezid ruling only in Europe. Bayezid rejected the proposal, of course, defending the continued unity of the Ottoman State, and received the support of Gedik Ahmet Paşa, who was in Anatolia at the time to recruit new troops for the Italian invasion and who was very popular among the Janissaries. In the end, the decisive battle between the two [brothers] took place near Yenişehir (June 20, 1481). Bayezid's numerical supremacy, when combined with the powerful attack of the Janissaries, enabled him to carry the day. Cem and the remnants of his army were forced to flee, eventually taking refuge in the Mamluk Empire in the company of the last Karamanid prince, Kasim Bey. Thus began a long period of exile. Cem's effort to depose Bayezid and regain the throne kept the sultan and his empire in apprehension until Cem's death 12 years later finally ended the threat. The fugitive prince initially was given some assistance by the Mamluks and built a small force at Aleppo (April 1482), where he was joined by a number of fugitive Turkoman princes and Anatolian feudal holders who had been dispossessed by Bayezid. In the meantime, Gedik Ahmet, Ishak Paşa, and the other devşirme ministers so dominated [Sultan] Bayezid that, in despair, he began to place members of the Turkish aristocracy in key positions and attempted to work through them to regain his power. When Cem's new expedition entered Ottoman territory in Cilicia (May 19, 1482), he found support from neither the devşirme nor the Turkish aristocracy, and after advancing near Ankara (June 8), he despaired of success and fled to Rhodes, where he accepted refuge offered by the treacherous Pierre d'Aubusson, leader of the Knights [of St. John of Jerusalem]. Bayezid's last main opponent in Anatolia was neutralized when Kasim Bey surrendered and renounced all his claims to Karaman in return for an appointment as Ottoman governor of Içel, thus being absorbed into the Ottoman system in the same ways as many other Turkoman notables. Cem sailed to France (September 1, 1482), still under the 'protection' of the Knights, who apparently were "persuaded" by the sultan's agents to remove him from the empire's immediate environs. Various negotiations followed with different Christian powers still hoping to use Cem against [Sultan] Bayezid, finally leading to an agreement to send him to Pope Innocent VIII (in 1486), who was contemplating a new Crusade. When Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and occupied Rome, he captured Cem (January 27,1495) and [was going to send] him to France. [But before he could do that], Cem 'fell ill' and died in Naples (February 25,1495), possibly as the result of poison -- administered at Bayezid's instigation, though this has never really been proved."26
Was Cem Sultan murdered -- with a poisoned shaving blade?
It's still the subject of debate -- whether Cem Sultan died of an illness or as a result of foul play. But there doesn't seem to be much support for historians claiming that he was killed with a poisoned straight razor by Kapacibaşı Mustafa Ağa -- who may have been sent from Istanbul (to Rome where Cem was residing at the time) by Sultan Bayezid II. However, it is generally agreed that he was murdered -- by a slow-acting poison (arranged, perhaps, by someone in the Borgia family -- like Cesare, Lucrezia, or even Pope Alexander VI) that steadily took effect after Cem had been captured from the Pope by the French King, Charles VIII -- who invaded Italy in 1495. Even in death, the unlucky prince (Cem) became a cause for bickering among countries -- who couldn't agree on 'ownership' of the corpse. His body was first sent to Gaeta (just a few miles northwest of Naples, Italy) -- 86 days after the funeral service had been held by Celal and Sinan beyler, two of Cem's loyal attendants. After several years of argument among the French, the Vatican, and the Ottomans, the body was moved to Lecce (near the Adriatic Sea on the south eastern-most tip of Italy -- 200 miles from Naples) -- and after remaining there a while more, it was finally sent by the Neapolitan King to the Ottomans. Cem Sultan's body currently lies in the Mustafa-i Türbe (Tomb of Mustafa, the murdered son of Süleyman the Magnificent) within the Muradiye Cami (Mosque of Sultan Murad II) complex -- in Bursa (Turkey). [But, his sarcophagus was destroyed in the Bursa earthquake of 1855.] Excerpted/translated/revised -- from the article entitled, "Tartışma -- On sonunda Cem Sultan ve dönem..."82
The image at left is a engraving proclaiming Cem's sultanate in Bursa -- in 1481. The three plumes on the front of the turban and the jeweled cape confirm Cem's sovereignty in this 'coat of arms'...that was probably prepared by a western artist, which explains Cem's longish hair showing beneath his turban. Right click the image to 'View' or 'Zoom' image enlargement...
Central Gate See Bab-üs Selam.  
Cevri Çelebi
cevri celebi, ottoman poet
Well-known 17th Century Ottoman poetThe poet Cevri must have had a 'quirky' personality because it's reported that he never set foot on a boat of any sort during his entire adult life. When he wanted to go to old-Istanbul [on the European-side] (to visit Topkapı palace, for example), he'd ride his horse from his home in Kağıthane -- proceeding westward over bridges into Alibeyköy, and then south to the walled-city. As for the 'up-start' Anatolian-side of Istanbul (including the important districts of Üsküdar or Kadıköy, for example), he never traveled there at all.91
Cevza

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18th century representation of the
Cevza astrological symbol (in the Paris Bibliotheque Nationale).69

---

16th century representation of the
Cevza astrological symbol (in the British Museum).69

The Osmanlı (Ottoman) astrological sign -- equivalent to Ikizler in modern Turkish, and Gemini in English. Covers the modern day period of 22 May to 22 June. In Ottoman times, Cezva was designated one of the three Spring astro-signs, along with Hamel and Sevr. (The Ottomans could learn the exact dates of these lunar periods from the Gurrename...)
See burçlar for complete list of Osmanlı (Ottoman), Modern Turkish, and English astrological signs.
Click following to see sample Turkish astrological predictions...
cezaevi

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Sixteenth Century prisoners of war and others under sentence being marched off to prison in Topkapı Palace...
From archives available to Hürriyet Gazetesi.85

A prison.
Also see hapıshane.
Abdurrahman Nüreddin Paşa was an early 20th Century Ottoman prison reformer.
cezve A small, long-handled copper (or other metal) pot for making the 'distinctive' Turkish coffee...  
[Battle of] ChaldiranSee Battle of Çaldıran. 
Charles V
[of the Holy Roman Empire]
(1500-1558)


Charles V by Titian (Tiziano),
the Emperor's favorite artist...

~~~
Compare Charles V with Süleyman I
Compare Charles V with Francis I
Compare Charles V with Henry VIII



Only known painting of Charles V (center) and Süleyman the Magnificent (left) together at a 'Canaanite Wedding' by
Veronese

Is it fact or fiction?
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suyleman and charles v, together

Holy Roman Emperor (1519-58), and, earlier known as Charles I, he was also king of Spain (1516-56). Grandson on mother's side to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (of Columbus fame).
A deeply religious 'Catholic' who lived in interesting times -- Charles maintained a "Who's Who"list of 'life-long' adversaries including Francis I of France, Sultan Süleyman I (The Magnificent), and the Reformation [Protestant] Church. He was somewhat successful against all but the latter. But the unending battling wore him down to the point of physical and mental exhaustion -- and he died, in seclusion, a disillusioned man. Charles was by far the grandest ruler in Christian history up to his time. His realm included Burgundy (present-day southeastern France and part of present-day Switzerland, inherited in 1506 at age 6); the Spanish kingdom (inherited 1516, at age 16); and the Hapsburg lands in central Europe (inherited 1519, at age 19). Also in 1519, Charles bribed the red-hat cardinals, and was elected Holy Roman Emperor. And, in 1520 he was crowned king of Germany. All this by the age of 20! [By the way, 1520 was also the year that Süleyman I (The Magnificent) ascended to the Ottoman throne at age 26...] Close to home, Charles' rule was 'challenged' by Francis I of France and Martin Luther, the religious reformer. Charles gave Luther a hearing at Worms in 1521, where Luther made his famous declaration, "Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise." But Luther's position was rejected, and Charles issued an edict condemning him. At almost the same time King Francis I of France took up arms against Charles -- drawing his attention away from the 'Protestant Problem' for a time. The subsequent and long-running feud between Francis and Charles [in which Francis was often allied with Süleyman I (The Magnificent)] ultimately favored Charles (allied at one point with the [fickle] King Henry VIII of England), but the cost was too high. Charles actually took Francis prisoner in 1525, but no sooner was he released after agreeing to 'be nice', than he renewed his warring ways -- this time aided by the [fickle] Henry VIII and Pope Clement VII. Charles' forces (mostly mercenaries) laid waste to Rome (see Sack of Rome) in 1527 and kept the Pope prisoner for seven months. Charles and Francis negotiated the Peace of Cambrai in 1529 -- in which Francis gave up his Italian lands, and Charles ceded Burgundy to France.
Charles wanted to end his wars with Francis I so he could concentrate on the Protestant Problem and prevent Süleyman I's Ottoman Turks from overrunning Europe. The Turks controlled the Balkan Peninsula, and in 1526, the year that Ferdinand I (Charles' younger brother) ascended to the Hungarian throne, Süleyman I took Hungary by storm. And just three years later, Süleyman nearly took Vienna -- only denied that prize by the onset of winter. Andrea Doria, the Genoese admiral, joined Charles' war against the Turks in 1535 and was successful at Tunis. But he was subsequently bested twice in head to head battles with Hayreddin Barbarossa, the Ottoman Admiral. In 1538 Charles formed an unsuccessful anti-Turkish alliance with Pope Paul III and the city-state of Venice. The failure of Charles to repel the Turks resulted in part from his inability to bring religious peace to his empire, particularly Germany. The spread of disorder during the Reformation emboldened the German princes to seek autonomy for their states. The peasants took advantage of the turmoil in 1524 and revolted. The domestic unrest and the continued war with the Turks forced the emperor to postpone his suppression of the Protestants and to grant them some liberties in 1532 in the Peace of Nuremberg. In 1536 Charles was again at war with France. The war was terminated by the Treaty of Nice in 1538, granting Francis most of the Piedmont region of Italy. The war was resumed in 1542 and ended in 1544 by the Treaty of Crepy, which largely reaffirmed the earlier Peace of Cambrai. Charles, no longer fighting the French or Turks, turned his attention to the princes and the Protestant city-states. In 1546 the emperor moved against the southern German principalities, and at Mühlberg, Saxony, on April 24, 1547, he scored a decisive victory against the Protestants. But his success was temporary and in 1551, when Magdeburg fell, Charles fled before the Protestant forces. In 1552, through his brother Ferdinand, he concluded the Peace of Passau, by which the Lutheran states were allowed to exercise their religion. Tired of the constant struggles and heavy responsibilities of his scattered realms, Charles in 1555 resigned the Netherlands and, in 1556, Spain, to his son Philip II. In 1556, he declared his intention to abdicate the imperial crown in favor of his brother, Ferdinand I, who officially became emperor in 1558. Charles, disillusioned (especially about his inability to stop Protestantism) retired that year to a monastery in Spain, where he died on September 21, 1558.21
cingenieSee Genie, in the Koran.
Circumcision, Hall of See Sünnet Odası.  
cirid/cirit

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Playing cirid in the 'park'...
while the Sultan (in red) observes from near the far pavilion column.
7
  1. the Arabian game on horseback called either 'cirid' or 'cirit'
  2. the blunt stick used as a javelin/joust in the mounted game of cirid
  3. also seen as:
    jereed, jerid
competitive tournament in which men on [usually] Arabian horses jousted with wooden javelins/jousts
Cizye The poll-tax paid by non-Muslims in Islamic states.  
Code Wheel

A cipher disk (for English) based on the Alberti Code Wheel.10
A [simple] device for coding and decoding cryptograms. One should use the code wheel together with a good method for encoding/decoding cryptograms, using several codes at once:
"The core of the method is the use of a keyword (or phrase)...The keyword can be any word or name, as long or short as you wish. Only two things are important. First is that no letters should be repeated in the keyword. Second, the keyword should be easy to remember." 10
Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople -- 1453
The name used for Istanbul, until its fall in 1453 at the hands of Mehmed II, The Conqueror.
See map of the siege of Constantinople.
Named after Constantine I (The Great).
In fact, 'Constantinople' remained the official name for the city all the way until 1930!

Depiction of one of the 'Walking Towers' employed by Mehmed the Conqueror's army during the siege of Istanbul.
Click with right mouse key to 'View' larger image...
The Siege Map of Constantinople -- 145354
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Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) Henry VIII's obedient Archbishop of Canterbury, and facilitator of Henry's marriages and divorces. He argued Henry's point of view before the Pope and Charles V. For example, he 'annulled' Henry's marriages to Catherine of Aragon (1533) and Anne Boleyn (1536) and, also, he granted Henry's divorce from Anne of Cleves (1540). In a more positive role, he gave the English Prayer Book it's admirable and resounding language. After Henry's death, Cranmer fell from grace (due to falsely signing an ascension document for Lady Jane Grey) and was convicted of treason under Queen Mary. He was burned at the stake (1555) holding his offending right hand in the fire to be burned first! Chronology of Events during his lifetime: Received M.A from Catabrigia (Cambridge, 1515). Gained favor of Henry VIII by suggesting that establishment of Catherine of Aragon's prior marriage to Prince Arthur would nullify her marriage to Henry; dispatched to Rome and to Charles V to argue the case (1530-32). At Nuremberg, found Osiander in agreement on the new religious order, and was married to Osiander's niece. Became Archbishop of Canterbury (1533) ; declared Henry's marriage with Catherine null and void; pronounced marriage of Henry and Anne Boleyn; crowned Anne queen; stood godfather to future Queen Elizabeth. Supported the king's claim to supremacy over Church of England; maintaining divine right of kings as against divine right of popes, the joint sovereignty of church and state. Annulled Henry's marriage with Anne Boleyn (1536); was instrument for divorce of Anne of Cleves (1540); informed king of prenuptial frailty of Catherine Howard (1541) and sought to persuade her to confess. Made ineffectual attempt to oppose the Six Articles for abolishing diversity of opinions (1539); took part in persecution of Frith, Lambert, and others. Promoted translation of the Bible into the vernacular; procured order requiring a copy in each church; repudiated doctrine of transubstantiation (1538); twice saved by Henry VIII from enemy plots (1543-45). One of regents during absence of Henry VIII (1541) and on death of Henry (1547); prepared church formularies; edited Homilies (1547), four of his own writing; compiled (1548) Edward VI's first Prayer Book (sanctioned 1549) and its revision (1552), the latter of which converted the Mass into the Communion. Sought through Melanchthon to promote union of reformed churches; chief composer of 42 articles of religion (1552); later reduced to 39; hence called the Thirty-nine Articles) ; gave to Prayer Book its stately and rhythmical language. Perjured himself by signing Edward VI's devise of the crown to Lady Jane Grey, the queen of nine days (1553). On accession of Queen Mary, condemned for treason, convicted by papal commission (1555), excommunicated, degraded from archbishopric, condemned for heresy by Cardinal Pole; signed seven recantations, admitting papal supremacy, but at the last renounced all of them. Burned at the stake (1555).34
Crusades

Muslim (left) and Christian (right)
face-off during the Crusades...
Military expeditions undertaken by Western European Christians between 1095 and 1270, usually at the request of the pope, to recover Jerusalem and the other Palestinian places of pilgrimage known to Christians as the Holy Land from Muslim control.
Participating "Christians" didn't always live up to their name -- in one case, they slaughtered European Jews by the thousands along the way, and in another case, they were guilty of cannibalism of vanquished Muslims! First Crusade (1095-1096), Second Crusade (1147-1149),Third Crusade (1189-1192), Fourth Crusade (1200-1204), Latin Christians conquer Eastern Christians in Constantinople. Fifth Crusade (1218-1221). Sixth Crusade (1228-1229). Seventh Crusade (1248-1254). Eighth Crusade (1270)
Crusades were also carried out, between the 13th and 15th centuries, against Christian heretics, and political foes of the papacy.

In Turkey - Türkiye'de

Tüm akademik kitap fırsatları için tıklayın !

Turkish History, Ottoman History, Ottman Age/Era Encyclopedia

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  • Turkish National Election, 2007
  • Newsreaders Encyclopedic Dictionary, Index
  • Movie Superhero Tarkan, historic and erotik
  • Mature Dutch Bride in Turkey
  • Mature British Bride in Turkey
  • Mature Swedish Bride in Turkey
  • TIME laid low by True Believers
  • Freedom of Speech gets a fiendish French Twist
  • The God-Awful State of Turkish-American Relations
  • Language-Learning Related Pages:
  • Translating Turkish, the basics
  • Essential Turkish Vocabulary
  • Turkish Verbs
  • Essential Idioms, Index
  • Essential Suffixes, Index
  • Sentence Structure, Standard
  • Turkish Pronunciation
  • Turkish Accenting
  • Turkish Numbers Revealed
  • Other Turkish Difficulties
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