Ottoman Empire, History of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Empire Encyclopedia
Ottoman History Encyclopedia, Ottoman Empire History, Türk Tarih, Osmanlı Tarih (Osmanli Tarih), Ali Kuşcu (Ali Kuscu), Adem ile Havva,
Abdulhamid, Islamic Calendar - AH

Learn Turkish Language Online -- Turkish Learning Logo
[Learn Turkish: Home] [Turkish: Beginners]
[Table of Contents] [Questions/Comments]
[Learn Turkish: Downloads] [Blog: Our Turkish Life!]
[Turkish Love] [Learn Turkish: Website Updates]
[Turkish: Movies, Index]
[Learn Turkish: Personal Names]
[Turkish: Website Search Engine]
[Online Turkish Word Dictionary]
Learn Turkish language, 
Online color bar

Ottoman Empire History
Identify this

Ottoman Age Notables...Skanderberg (Gjergj Kastrioti) -- 15th C. Albanian military genius.
Ottoman Empire Nemesis
In Turkey - Türkiye'de
Gittigidiyor, an ebay affiliate

In Turkey - Türkiye'de

Ads by HepsiBurada

Free updates for life!
Jim and Peri's
CD/Broadband Editions
for Turkish Learning --
with triple ebook bonus!
Learn Turkish Language CD/Broadband Offer

Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
For English-speakers
- A -
In Turkey - Türkiye'de

Tüm Türk sanatı fırsatları için tıklayın !

Gittigidiyor, an ebay affiliate

Sultans and Concubines and Eunuchs, oh my...!

Site visitors may navigate the encyclopedia using the
Ottoman Empire Index
or the
Encyclopedia Sources Page.
Term Meaning Comments
Abd- A prefix used in Arabic that means 'servant of'or'slave of'. It is used frequently as the first part of a person's name, such as Abd'ul-Aziz or Servant of the Saint (which was the name of the Ottoman Sultan from 1861 to 1876). See also, al-, ben-, bin, bint, ibn-, and Arabic Names. To find encyclopedia entries for Arabic-named persons beginning al- or ibn- see the second part of the name. For example, to find the entry for the "Father of the Church of Islam" whose name was al-Ghazali, look under the letter 'G'. For Arabic names beginning Abd-, look under the letter 'A'. For names beginning ben-, bin, bint, see the letter 'B'.
Common male names are frequently formed by using any one of the 99 'attributes of Allah' preceded by 'Abd-al' or 'Abdel'. For example, the male name Abd-al-Hafiz means 'Servant of the Protector'.
For honorific purposes 'din', 'ullah', etc. may be added as a suffix to the name. So, Hafizüddin (Protector of Islam) is more honorific than plain Hafiz (Protecting).
[Sounds] (2k bytes)
1) name given to dervishes.
2) a rank in a dervish order.
or aptes
(Arabic Wudu)
  • ritual ablution (washing, cleansing one's body, body parts)
  • the state of canonical purity
  • bowel movement; feces
  • Devout Muslims must carry out full body ablution (gusül in Turkish, ghusl in Arabic) in the following situations:
    A) after sexual intercourse,
    B) at the end of a woman's menstrual period -- and... Continue reading and view informative illustrations, "Modern Ablution Illustrated"...»
    [Sultan] Abdulhamid I (Abdülhamid I)
    (b. 20 March 1725 -- d. 7 April 1789)

    Abdulhamid I, Sultan -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Seated in solid gold throne
    Portrait by unknown artist --
    Topkapı Palace Museum

    Abdülhamid I was son of Sultan Ahmed III and Rabia Şermi Sultan. He ascended the throne on 21 January 1774, and had to oversee the humiliating Küçük Kaynarca Treaty (signed July 21, 1774) with the Russians -- which also led to the Russian annexation of the Crimea. Fifteen years later, he died of stroke when he heard that the fortress (known in Turkish as Özi Kalesi) at the southern Ukrainian Black Sea port city of Oczakov (Ochakov) had fallen -- to Catherine's advancing Russian troops.

    Ottoman sultan between 1774 and 1789. A contemporary and rival of the Russian Empress, Catherine the Great (and her Commander-in-Chief, counselor, and principal favorite Prince Gregory Potemkin). Abdülhamid I came to power just after Ottoman forces had been routed at Kozluca by the Russian military genius Alexander Suvorov, and he died 15 years later in the midst of further Russian conflicts. Abdülhamid was succeeded by Selim III -- who did much to revive the sagging prestige of the Ottoman Navy.
    Prior to succeeding his brother Mustafa III to the throne, Abdülhamid spent most of his nearly 50 years secluded in the palace. [Lord Kinross describes him as a largely 'ineffectual monarch'.16 But Stanford Shaw sees him in a kinder light...] Shaw observed that he became the first of the 'modern day' Ottoman Empire reformers.26 He was not, however, beyond playing court politics to the hilt.
    The most influential of his Viziers served during the 6 years between 1779 and 1785 -- Kara Vezir Seyyit Mehmet Paşa (1779-1781) and Halil Hamit Paşa (1782-1785). Shaw argues that the latter was one of the great agents of Ottoman reform despite his short term in office...Halil fell prey to court intrigues, was dismissed, and then executed by the sultan -- when he was suspected of plotting a coup.
    The reforms Abdülhamid I set out to make would breath new life into the faltering Empire -- for a time. First he sought to lessen the power of conservative elements responsible for the Empire's stagnation and deterioration. In this he was opposed by the ulema (who were rather successful in whipping up support among the populace, whenever crisis abated) and by 'old guard' military men. Second, he sought to modernize the army. One of his most 'startling' reforms in this latter endeavor involved the importation of foreign military advisors -- who were not required to convert to Islam nor to adopt Ottoman ways. The Hungarian nobleman Baron François de Tott (1730-1793) was arguably the most notable of this 'new breed'...
    Abdullah Buhari Ottoman nakkaş and poet -- during the reign of Sultan Mahmud I.
    As an miniaturist, Abdullah ranks just behind and was surely influenced by his near contemporary Levni (Abdülcelil Çelibi) -- arguably the greatest of all the Ottoman miniaturists.
    Genrally speaking, Buhari's works (between 1728 to 1745) depict single figures and flower still-lifes -- and they all carry his signature. In one album [#9364, now at the Istanbul University Library], he portrayed young men and women of Istanbul and the environs. His works from the second half of the 18th century reflect western influences and are not highly regarded. Paintings from that latter period include portraits of the sultan, clothing book illustrations, decorative landscape illustrations for poetry-magazines, and flower still-lifes.57
    Buhari's women...
    A bookbinder by trade, Abdullah Buhari was one of the Ottoman Empire's most important 18th Century painters. Part of his fame arises from his catalog of female clothing customs -- especially in Istanbul, where his works show details of women's in-and-out of doors fashions. His nakiş, give clear evidence of the influence of different ethnic and religious groups on the Istanbul fashion scene of the day.86
    Click following to see an example of Abdullah Buhari's work.
    Addurrahman Nureddin Paşa

    Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasa (paşa) -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    From the archives available to Hürriyet Gazetesi85

    The Adliye Nazırı during the time of Adbülhamid II. Initiated five year plan in 1903 to reform the Ottoman prison system in line with European standards of the time. But when money for construction projects (which were to be partly financed from taxes on the populations of Bursa and Konya) failed to materialize, the plan was scrapped.
    See also cezaevi.
    [Sounds] (2k bytes)
    A 'beginner' female slave, just arrived to the Palace Harem, or any 'newbie' male or female.  
    acemi oğlanlar
    [Sounds] (2k bytes)

    Acemi Oglan (Oğlan), Christian recruits -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    16th Century Ottoman Acemi Oğlan --
    under the watchful eye of
    his 'drill sergeant' (Iç Oğlan Çavuşu)...15

    Early Ottoman Acemi Oglan (Oğlan), Christian recruits -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia

    Ottoman Acemi Oğlanlar from an early (?) period...
    This 'improved' image dated 15861

    Male novices in the Page School of the Palace who were later to join the Janissary Corps. Young pages of Christian origin who were forcibly recruited from the provinces of the Ottoman Empire to perform the most menial tasks, while they were in training to become members of the elite Janissary Corps. Also see, devşirme.
    After the reign of Süleyman the Magnificent, recruits from the general free-born (Muslim) population were also accepted as Janissaries.
    AD (Christian Calendar) Anno Domini.
    The appearance of the AD abbreviation (following calendar dates) signifies usage of the calendar system based on solar dating, now in general use -- known as the "modern" western Gregorian calendar. It was proclaimed in 1582 AD by Pope Gregory XIII as a reform of the Julian calendar.
    See also AH, M.Ö., M.S., İ.Ö., and İ.S.
    Adem ile Havva

    Adam and Eve (Adem ile Havva) by Guilo Clovio -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Detail of a painting by Guilo Clovio located in Cardinal Allesandro Farnese's 'Book of Hours' dated 1546...60
    Adam and Eve.
    The first human couple -- according to the beliefs of the Islamic, Christian, and Jewish faiths.
    As for the Christian and Jewish faiths...The story of 'The Creation' (including the creation of man and woman) is explained in general terms in the first chapter and the beginning of the second chapter -- of the book of Genesis in the Old Testament of the Bible. The details of Adam and Eve's creation (and of their fall from grace) are found in the remainder of the second and in the third chapter.
    As for the Islamic faith...The story of Adam's creation and downfall (Eve is not mentioned by name) is described in the second Sura of the Koran beginning with 'verse' 30. According to A. Yusuf Ali's translation of the Koran, in creating Adam, God created a being that was in some ways superior and in some ways inferior to God's angels. For God taught Adam the 'names of things' which commentators believe should be taken to mean the "inner nature and the qualities of things; and things here would include feelings...The particular qualities or feelings which were put outside the nature of angels were put by God into the nature of man. Man was thus able to love and understand love, and thus to plan and initiate, as becomes the office of Man (God's vice-regent)."61 But along with his gift of the 'knowledge of things', God gave man other qualities (which the angels do not also possess) that are liable to lead him into sin.
    1. Judicial
    2. Administration of justice
    3. Department of Justice (with caps).
    4. A gold coin in the age of Sultan Mahmud II.
    5. The Shia brand of Islam (a Shiite usage).
    Adliye Nazırı [Ottoman name for] Minister of Justice.
    In the modern-day Turkish Republic, the Justice Minister is the Adalet Bakanı.
    See also, Adliye Nezareti, Adliye Vekaleti, and Adliye Vekili.
    Adliye Nezareti [Ottoman name for] Ministry of Justice.
    In the modern-day Turkish Republic, the Justice Ministry is the Adalet Bakanlığı.
    See also, Adliye Nazırı, Adliye Vekaleti, and Adliye Vekili.
    Adliye Vekaleti [Ottoman name for] Ministry of Justice.
    In the modern-day Turkish Republic, the Justice Minister is the Adalet Bakanlığıı.
    See also, Adliye Nezareti, Adliye Nazırı, and Adliye Vekili.
    Adliye Vekili [Ottoman name for] Minister of Justice.
    In the modern-day Turkish Republic, the Justice Minister is the Adalet Bakanı.
    See also, Adliye Nezareti, Adliye Vekaleti, and Adliye Nazırı.
    [North] African littoral

    Cities along the North African littoral...66

    The region lying along the northern shore of Africa -- long under Ottoman sovereignty.  
    [Sounds] (2k bytes)
    Master, gentleman or woman, lord, sir, respected elder, elder brother/sister. Also 'feudal landlord' in the Ottoman Empire.
    Ağa yamağı
    aga yamagi (ağa yamağı) -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Uniformed 'chief'90
    Chief of locally hired soldiers at a detached fort.  
    AH (Islamic Calendar) Anno Hegira
    [or Anno Hegirae],
    the year of the hegira.
    Islamic calendar years are numbered starting from the date of Muhammad's hegira on July 16, 622 AD -- as specified using the western (Gregorian) calendar. However, simply adding 622 to every Anno Hegira date you encounter, will not reveal the correct Anno Domini (AD) date, because the Islamic calendar is based on the lunar year, which is approximately eleven days shorter than the solar year. Over hundreds of years, the eleven-day difference adds up -- causing the initial 622-year gap between the two calendars to widen. For example, 10 AH is 632-633 AD but 1044 AH is 1634-35 AD -- not 1666 AD, as you might expect (hope!).

    Each lunar month may be 29 or 30 days long -- depending on the sighting of the new moon.
    A lunar year has between 354 and 355 days. This is approximately 10-11 days less than the solar year. So an Islamic year is shorter by 10-11 days for each year in a solar calendar year.

    To accurately convert dates between the Islamic and Gregorian (western) calendars, use the following two formula:
    1) G = H - ( (3 * H) / 100 ) + 622
    2) H = G + ( ( G - 622) / 32 ) - 622
    Where G = Gregorian year (AD) and H = Islamic 'Hijra' year (AH)

    The twelve lunar months of the Islamic calendar are:
    1. Muharram ul Haram
    2. Safar
    3. Rabi-ul-Awwal
    4. Rab-ul-Akhir
    5. Jamadi-ul-Awwal
    6. Jamadi-ul-Akhir
    7. Rajab
    8. Sha'aban
    9. Ramadhan
    10. Shawwal
    11. Dhul Qadah
    12. Dhul Hijja
    See also AD, M.Ö. and M.S.
    [Sounds] (2k bytes)
    A leader of a semi-religious fraternity of late Selçuk and early Ottoman times.  
    ak ağa
    [Sounds] (3k bytes)
    a white eunuch of the Palace.  
    akçe (also, akça)
    [Sounds] (2k bytes)
    A silver coin, the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire. Three akçe equalled to one para. One-hundred twenty akçe equalled to one kuruş.
    Akhor Kapı

    [Sounds] (5k bytes)

    Stable Gate at Topkapı Palace.  
    (also seen as 'akinci')

    [Sounds] (5k bytes)

    Ottoman raiders or 'shock troops' -- on horseback  

    [Sounds] (5k bytes)

    Ottoman Turkish troops that fought on the Byzantine frontier.  
    al- A prefix used in Arabic that means 'the'. It is used frequently as the first part of a person's name, such as al-Ghazali or The Gazelle (name of the well-known Islamic philosopher). See also, Abd-, ben-, bin, bint, ibn-, and Arabic Names. To find encyclopedia entries for Arabic-named persons beginning al- or ibn- see the second part of the name. For example, to find the entry for the "Father of the Church of Islam" whose name was al-Ghazali, look under the letter 'G'. For Arabic names beginning Abd-, look under the letter 'A'. For names beginning ben-, bin, bint, see the letter 'B'.
    alay For both military and administrative purposes, timar holders were grouped into units called alay (regiment) that were commanded by alay beys, and then into larger units called sancak or liva (standard, banner), commanded by sancak beys. At the top were the governors, called beylerbeyis, who ruled the provinces (eyalets).  
    alay alay
    • lit., in troops, in companies.
    • The Parade of the Regiments; was a vast public parade of all sorts of Ottoman dignitaries that usually included Janissary brigades, the Keeper of the Prophet's sacred Sancakı Şerif, the religious judiciary (members of the ulema), the Grand Vizier himself, palace pages (on foot and mounted), the Sultan himself, the Sultan's harem 'favorites', members of selected Guilds, Dervishes -- and, to enliven the parade, it could even include a contingent of lunatics on leave from the local asylum.
      Thanks to the Reverand Harold Smart (decsd.), via John Guise, esq.
    Also see alay.
    Alberti, Leon Battista (1404-1472)
    Leon Battista Alberti and his cryptological code wheel -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Alberti's cryptological marvel...2
    The 'Father of Western Cryptology'. Alberti's 'invention' in 1467 gave the West the lead in cryptology for the first time in history -- a lead it never again relinquished. "I make two circles out of copper plates. One, the larger, is called stationary, the smaller called moveable. I divide the circumferences of each circle into 24 parts [making room for the 20 Italian alphabetic characters of his day, plus four numbers]. These parts are called cells." After filling cells of both copper plates -- sequentially with the available letters and numbers, "we place the smaller circle upon the larger so that a needle driven through the centers of both may serve as the axis of both and the movable plates may be revolved around it."
    Also see, Code Wheel.
    Florentine by nature, architect by trade. Humanist, architect, painter, composer, performer, writer, and cryptologist, Alberti was the quintessential Renaissance man. David Kahn (in The Code-breakers) says, "Alberti's three remarkable firsts -- the earliest Western exposition of cryptanalysis, the invention of polyalphabetic substitution, and the invention of enciphered code -- make him the Father of Western Cryptology."
    Alexander VI (c.1431-1503) A pope (1492-1503), who was noted for his worldliness and corruption. Born Rodrigo de Borja (Italian Borgia) near Valencia, Spain, he was adopted into the family of his maternal uncle, Alfonso Borgia (later Pope Callistus III). Even as a teenager, Rodrigo was given ecclesiastical grants and revenues. After studying law at Bologna, he became successively a cardinal, a bishop, and an able administrator in the papal court. As a member of the powerful Borgia family, he acquired wealth and lived a life of worldly pleasure. As a member of the clergy, he fathered four children by a Roman noblewoman, Vanozza Catanei; the two most famous were Cesare (b. 1476) and Lucrezia Borgia (b. 1480). During the conclave (to choose the Pope) of 1492, following the death of Innocent VIII, Rodrigo was elected. But, he had used bribery to gain the necessary two-thirds of the votes. He reformed papal finances; recovered most of the Papal States (or rather, his son Cesare did); and tried to unite Christendom against the Turks. He also issued the Bull of Demarcation (1493), that divided the New World between Spain and Portugal, and sent the first missionaries to America. In 1498, he ordered the execution of the Florentine church reformer Girolamo Savonarola for heresy. Alexander was flagrantly corrupt as the father and the Pope; All of his children became rich and powerful through his ecclesiastical and political appointments and arranged marriages. Some modern historians tend to minimize the sensuality of his pontificate, but the positive aspects of his reign are clearly overshadowed by corruption and ambition. He died August 18, 1503.21
    Ali bin Abu Taleb
    (also seen as, Ali ibn Abi Talib)
    The 4th Islamic Caliph.
    Ali was of the Quraysh tribe, an early Muslim convert, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad and married to his daughter Fatima.
    Ali's assassination in 651 AD provided the spark which led to the separation of Islam into the two major sects of Sunni and Shiite. Subsequent to the assassination, Ali's son (Hüseyin/Husayn) was killed at the Battle of Karbala (680 A.D.) while fighting against the son (Yazid I) of Ali's greatest rival (Mu'awiya). After that battle (won by Yazid and the Sunni-side), the Islamic rift became permanent and irreconcilable. See a depiction of Ali 'in action' at the entry for Siyer-i Nebi.
    Ali Kuşcu
    Original birth name: Ali Alaeddin.
    Born Samarkand/Semarcand/Semerkant
    (date unknown), died December 18, 1474 in Istanbul.

    Ali Kuşcu, Ali Alaeddin (astronomer and mathematician)  -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Ali Kuşçu presenting one of his written works to Mehmed, The Conqueror...

    Ali Kuşçu had the good fortune to live in an age of Ottoman enlightenment -- during which the philosophy of Abu Bakr al-Razi (the Islamic 9th century medical writer and proponent of human intellect and reason) held sway. When that enlightened philosophy was later overtaken by the anti-intellectual philosophy of al-Ghazali, the Ottoman empire began its decline.

    Famous astronomer and mathematician who came to Ottoman Empire prominence during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II. His father was Mehmed Bey -- a falconer in Samarkand for Uluğ Bey, the grandson of Tamerlane. His father's profession (doğancı) led to Ali's 'pseudonym', Kuşçu.
    Young Ali received his first lessons in mathematics and astronomy from Uluğ Bey himself -- and Kazızade-i Rumi60, a well-known mathematician (aka Kazızade Musa Paşa, according to Stanford  Shaw 26).
    Afterwards, he ran away to Kerman (Kirman/Carmania -- a province in SE Iran) and completed his education there. When Ali Kuşçu returned to Samarkand, he presented Uluğ Bey with his first written work (Risale-i Hallü'l-Eşkalil-Kamer -- a treatise on the stages of the moon), as an atonement for his ill-behaved departure to Kerman. Uluğ Bey appointed Ali Kuşçu to head the famous observatory in Samarkand (that Tamerlane had built). Subsequently, Ali Kuşçu and Uluğ Bey collaborated on Zic-i Uluğ Bey, an enormous catalog of the stars -- and an important astrological work of the time.
    When Uluğ Bey died (1449) Ali Kuşçu had to take refuge (on the way to Tebriz) with Akkoyunlu Uzun Hasan who arranged for him to go to Istanbul as good-will ambassador. When he arrived, Sultan Mehmed II gave him a lavish reception and proposed that Ali give lessons at the Ayasofia Medrese. After his ambassadorial duties were satisfactorily completed, Ali Kuşçu settled in Istanbul where he established his own school. There he taught such ulema students as Molla Sarı Lütfü, Kivameddin Kasım, and Sinaneddin Yusuf60 -- as well as the cosmographer Hafız Mehmet ibn Ali (d. 1543) and the Ottoman admiral and geographer Seydi Ali Reis (d. 1562).26
    Ali Kuşçu also wrote 'popular' works in his time on Islamic Theology, the hadiths, Koranic Commentary, Arab Language grammar and syntax -- in the latter category his most famous work was, Unkudü'z-Zevahir.
    His most important work of all was a theoretical mathematical treatise written in Farsi, entitled Zic-i Uluğ Bey Şerh. Another important work, this one on astronomy written in 1457 (also in Farsi), was Risale fi'l-Hey'e. In the latter work, consisting of a preface and two articles, he knowledgeably and accurately discussed the distances between the heavenly bodies and the Earth. (Later, he added a third article and translated the lot into Arabic as Risale fi'l-Fethiyye.) He is also known to have dedicated and presented (to Sultan Mehmed II) Arabic translations of his works Risale fi'l-Hisab'ı and Risale-tü'l-Muhammediye.60

    Ali Kuşçu died peacefully in Istanbul (1474) after a distinguished career as educator, writer, and scientist in the enlightened tradition of Abu Bakr al-Razi.
    [Sounds] (3k bytes)
    The Golden Way/Road -- which connected the Harem and the Selamlık, at Topkapı Palace. A corridor in the Harem at Topkapı Palace, decorated with fine ceramics, that the Sultan would traverse on celebration days -- as he tossed golden coins to members of the Harem.
    Altmışlı medrese
    [Sounds] (4k bytes)
    Means 'a medrese of sixty'. A grade of medrese, above the dahil medreses, headed by a müderris earning sixty akçes daily.  
    Anatolia (Anadolu)
    • Asia Minor.
    • The Asian portion of Turkey.
    • The portion of Turkey that is south of the Bosphorus.
    [Battle of] Ankara, 1402
    Battle of Ankara -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Ankara -- the battle that caused the Interregnum
    The battle of Ankara pitted an Ottoman force (consisting of infantry, sipahi cavalry, and some Tartar auxiliaries) led by Sultan Bayezid I, and the larger force of Tamerlane (Timur) -- consisting of horse-archers (in a tradition followed by the Ottoman's own ancestors) and an elephant corps. The sizes of the two armies are reliably estimated at 140,000 on Timur's side and about 85,000 under Sultan Bayezid I. Both armies had scored recent victories.40
    Timur defeated Bayezid at Ankara and captured not only Bayezid but also his Serbian wife, Despina (Olivera?). Afterwards, Timur paraded Bayezid around in a cage and subjected Despina to 'unspeakable' acts (e.g., serving meals in the nude to Timur, in the presence of her prisoner-husband Bayezid16). What was even worse, was that the coquettish Despina didn't seem to mind her 'ordeal' that much (she's reported to have kissed Timur openly at one point). The resulting humiliation was too much for Bayezid -- and he committed suicide in captivity. With Bayezid's defeat the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist (temporarily), except in the minds of Bayezid's sons -- who battled each other steadily during the eleven year Interregnum to see who'd be the next undisputed Ottoman Sultan. What happened to Timur? Three years after the battle he returned home to do some local campaigning -- and was killed (1405). And without his presence, the Ottoman Empire began to re-emerge...So when in 1413, Mehmed I ascended to the throne, it was as if Tamerlane had never existed.
    The Battle
    Bayezid took up a strong defensive position behind a stream and along low hills defended by his Janissary and 'azap' infantry -- with his Rumeli and Anatolian sipahis on the left and right, respectively. Timur's army first attacked the sipahis of Rumelia on the Ottoman left wing. Next, he charged against the Serbian conscript troops on the second line to the Ottoman right. The Serbs repulsed Timur's cavalry but, while trying to pursue them, lost cohesion and fell back, abandoning their original position to the enemy. Bayezid's Tartar troops then changed sides and also attacked the Ottoman left wing, where the Rumeli sipahis began to crumble. Some Ottoman reserves under Mehmed Celebi (the next sultan-to-be) charged the traitorous Tartars, but the Ottoman left-side had slowly to give ground. Turcoman contingents from the recently conquered Anatolian emirates, on the Ottoman right wing, now also deserted to Timur -- which left the Janissaries and 'azaps' exposed on both flanks. Judging the battle lost, the remaining Ottoman reserves fled with the Sultan's oldest son, Süleyman. Bayezid decided to link-up with the Serbs in order to cover his son's escape. He chose the hill of Çatal, where six remaining squadrons from the Ottoman right were already making a stand. Timur's troops surrounded this hill but their assaults were beaten back. When night fell Bayezid and some 300 cavalry broke out eastwards, but the Sultan's horse fell and he was captured.40
    Araba (or, Arabacılar) kapısı

    [Sounds] (5k bytes)

    Carriage Gate, Topkapi Palace (Araba kapısı, Topkapı Saray) -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Marvin??? Is that you, Marvin?!
    Settle down, Mabel. Yer rockin' the boat...
    well, i never...

    Carriage Gate The Main Entrance to the Harem in Topkapı Palace. The carriages would pull up to this gate to disembark the lady passengers, in their fine clothes and jewelry of rubies, diamonds, and pearls.

    Arabic Alphabet -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    The Arabic alphabet

    The everyday and/or official language of the Arabian (and several African) countries... ...these include Morocco (see Fas), Libya, Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and others. In Iran where Farsi is spoken, the language is written in near-Arabic script. At one time, during Ottoman days, it was also spoken by many Turks. Among Muslims, Arabic is considered sacred since it is the language through which the Koran (Kuran) is believed to have been revealed.
    (See also KŻfi.)
    Arabic Names -- in Ottoman Times Ottoman-day Arabic names might consist of five parts:

    (1) A personal name, such as:
    a) an ordinary Arab name, like Muhammad, Ahmad or Ali. This was sometimes preceded with the definite article 'al' (the), as with Al-Hasan (The Hasan);
    (b) a Biblical name in its Islamic 'translation', like Harun (Aaron), Ibrahim (Abraham), Süleyman (Solomon);
    (c) a compound name -- often 'Abd' ('servant/slave of') combined with one of the 'divine Islamic attributes' (preceded by the article 'al' [the]), like Abd al-Aziz (servant of the Mighty), Abd al-Karim (servant of the Generous), or simply Abdullah (slave of God); or
    (d) a Persian name (like, Jamshid, Rustam) or a Turkish name (like Timur, Buri).

    (2) A name compounded of Abu (father of) or Umm (mother of), like Abu Musa Ali (Ali, father of Moses) or Umm Ahmad (mother of Ahmad), which always preceded the personal name but did not necessarily indicate a real parental relationship and could be metaphorical, as Abu al-Fadl (father of merit) or even a nickname, as Abu al-Dawaniq (father of pennies, a name given to Caliph Al-Mansur);

    (3) A list of ancestors, each introduced by ibn/bin (son of) or bint (daughter of), often given for two generations, though sometimes many more (in extreme cases, back to Adam). Or a single reference to a remote (famous) ancestor, like Ibn Sina, Ibn Khaldun. The 'Ibn' was replaced by -i or -zadeh in Persian and -oğlu in Turkish;

    (4) A descriptive or honorific name, sometimes a nickname but often a title, to indicate:
    (a) physical qualities, Al-Tawil (the tall), Al-Jahiz (the goggle-eyed);
    (b) virtues, Al-Rashid (the upright), Al-Mansur (the victorious);
    (c) professions, Al-Hallaj (the carder), Al-Khayyam (the tentmaker);
    (d) compounds of 'Din' ('religion') and other words, Jalal al-Din (majesty of the religion), Nizam al-Murk (order of the kingdom), Sayf al-Islam (sword of the Islam). Compounds in this category would precede and sometimes replace the personal name; and

    (5) A name to indicate place of birth, origin, or residence, sometimes from a sect, tribe, or family, and occasionally from a trade or profession, as Al-Misri (the Egyptian), Al-Isfahani (from Isfahan), Al-Wahhabi (the Wahhabite).
    (Copied and revised, from an article by Alan Lowenschuss and Barbara R. von Schlegell, Religious Studies Faculty, University of Pennsylvania, 1996.)

    And in addition to these up-to-five-part names, sometimes a writer (author) would take an additional pen name, like FuzŻli (Meddler) -- the pen name of the Ottoman poet, Mehmed Ibn Süleyman. Note that FuzŻli 'borrowed' the 'Ibn Süleyman' portion of his 'real' name from his 'adopted' father, Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent...
    [Sounds] (5k bytes)
    A unit of Ottoman measurement, one arşun was the modern equivalent of 75.8 cm. (Also see zira.)  
    Arz Odası
    [Sounds] (5k bytes)
    The Throne Room.
    The Sultan received all foreign envoys here and members of the Divan (and whomever he damn well pleased!) This is one of the earliest of the Palace buildings. Had major renovations in 1723, 1810 (Mahmut II), and after the great fire (1856) during the reign of Abdülmecit.
    [Sounds] (5k bytes)
    The Ottoman military class.  
    [Sounds] (5k bytes)
    A 'lover', a candidate for membership in the Bektaşi Order of dervishes  
    Aşık Kerem the leading-man in the tragic Turkish folktale, Kerem ile Aslı. 
    [Sounds] (5k bytes)

    Lion Astrological Sign (Aslan) -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Aslan astrological sign --
    from a 'Prayer Hours' book dated 1475
    Pierpont Morgan Library (New York).60

    The modern Turkish-name for the astrological sign -- equivalent to Leo in English.
    Also means 'lion' in modern Turkish...
    See the Osmanlı (Ottoman) entry Esed -- for illustration. See burçlar for complete list of Osmanlı (Ottoman), Modern Turkish, and English astrological signs.
    Pierre d'


    Pierre d'Aubusson, Grand Master, Order of St. John of Jerusalem -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    A miniature showing Pierre d'Aubusson greeting Prince Cem -- as he disembarks ship at Rhodes...82
    Impressive but treacherous Grand master of the military-religious Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Knights of St. John) from c. 1476 until his death in 1503.
    D' Aubusson is perhaps best known for his defense of Rhodes against the Ottomans -- especially in 1479-80 against the forces of Mehmed the Conqueror (led by the converted-Ottoman-admiral Mesih Pasha, a descendent of the Byzantine Palaeologus family).
    The son of French nobility, d' Aubusson joined the Knights of St. John when he was about 30 years of age. After serving with the Knights for more than 20 years..."he became grand master of the order (in 1476) and in 1480 gained widespread fame in Europe for successfully defending Rhodes against Sultan Mehmed II's fleet. Later, when Prince Cem (Jem), brother of Mehmed's successor Bayezid II, took refuge in Rhodes, Aubusson proved treacherous. For, despite his promise to Cem of safe conduct, he accepted a bribe from Bayezid and had Cem imprisoned. After six years, Aubusson turned Cem over to Pope Innocent VIII, who had been vying with the kings of Hungary and Naples for the possession of so valuable a political weapon as the Sultan's brother. In return, Innocent made Aubusson a cardinal (1489) with the power to confer all benefices connected with the order without the sanction of the papacy. As cardinal, Aubusson reformed the Order of St. John, strengthened its authority in Rhodes, and overtly eliminated Judaism from the island by expelling all adult Jews and forcibly baptizing their children. Two years before his death, Aubusson failed in trying to organize a large international crusade against the Turks."66
    The Knights of St. John, with their headquarters at Rhodes, held the island as a barrier to Ottoman expansion in the Aegean Sea.
    [Sounds] (5k bytes)

    1520 YILINDA
    Europe in 1520 -- when Süleyman The Magnificent ascended to the throne

    Map of Europe in 1520 -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Ayasofya See Hagia Sophia. 
    Ayşe Sultan
    b. 16?? d. 1656
    [Sounds] (5k bytes)

    Ayse Sultan (Ayşe Sultan) and her 5 husbands -- Ottoman Empire Historical Encyclopedia
    Fanciful depiction of Ayşe Sultan -- with five of her husbands...75

    Daughter of Sultan Ahmed I by Köşem Sultan and loving sister of (the eventual Sultan) Murad IV -- and Liz Taylor's Ottoman rival in the game of 'multiple marriages'. But Ayşe's 'marrying game' was a grisly one -- none of her seven husbands lasted more than five years before perishing, for one reason or another... With her mind attuned to the wishes of the sultanate, Ayşe Sultan had a succession of husbands starting with the aged Sadrazam Nasuh Paşa -- when she was not much more than a child. Three years later her husband failed in his duty to the Sultan and met his fate at the hands of the bostancı -- in the traditional manner, by strangulation.
    After barely enough time to respectfully grieve her loss, she was remarried -- this time to Karakaş Mehmed Paşa. But within five years, he too had passed on to a better world -- due to apparently natural causes.
    Her third husband was the Beylerbeyi of Van province, Hafiz Ahmed Paşa -- a former slave of Kösem Sultan. This marriage (involving lots of political skulduggery) pitted Kösem Sultan (the winner) against the Grand Vizier Kemankeş Ali Paşa (the loser). But the in-fighting went for naught before wedding celebrations were barely underway. The day after the wedding, while defending his castle from marauding bandits, Hafiz Ahmed Paşa was killed.
    Marriage number four -- arranged according to the wishes of (then) Sultan Murad IV -- was to the 'mayor' of Diyarbakır, Mustaza Paşa. But, sadly, Mustaza suffered mortal wounds and didn't return with the rest of the troops after the Revan war campaign.
    The list goes on...
    Ayşe's fifth husband Vizier Ahmed Paşa was also killed in battle -- during an Ottoman attack on Crete.
    Next in line was the Kaptan-i Derya, Voynuk Ahmed Paşa -- of which little is reported, except that he also soon passed away.
    Finally...Ayşe's last husband was the Sadrazam, İpşir Mustafa Paşa -- who, on Murad IV's orders (but actually at Grand Admiral Kara Murat Paşa's instigation), was decapitated by the Janissaries -- for some courtly misdemeanor or other. This last dead husband proved to be the undoing of Ayşe -- and in 1656 (during the reign of Sultan Mehmed IV) she also passed away.75

    Should we be glad she finally 'escaped' all those deadly marital entanglements or should we be sorry that she never found a lasting love?
    Azak Azov or Azof.
    Town near the mouth of the Don River, on SE shore of the E end of the Gulf of Taganrog.
    Sacked by Tamerlane in 1395; held alternately by Russians and Ottomans until 1739 when it was secured to Russia under Empress Anna.
    In Turkey - Türkiye'de

    Tüm akademik kitap fırsatları için tıklayın !

    Turkish History, Ottoman History, Ottman Age/Era Encyclopedia

    Related Pages:

  • Ottoman Empire Encyclopedia, Index
  • Turkish Newsreaders Encyclopedic Dictionary, Index
  • Turkish Culture -- Two Turkish traditions we especially like
  • Turkish Culture -- 4 things you shouldn't do in Turkey
  • Turkish Culture -- 5 things you should do in Turkey
  • Turkish Superstitions
  • Famous Femmes of Modern Turkish History
  • Actress Suzan Avcı -- Born To Be Bad
  • Circumcision and what many Turks believe about Westerners

  • Also:
  • Turkish Movies - Best-Looking Bad Girl of the 1970s, Sevda Ferdağ
  • Bad Girls of the 1970s Turkish Cinema, Aliye Rona
  • Turkish National Election, 2007
  • Newsreaders Encyclopedic Dictionary, Index
  • Movie Superhero Tarkan, historic and erotik
  • Mature Dutch Bride in Turkey
  • Mature British Bride in Turkey
  • Mature Swedish Bride in Turkey
  • TIME laid low by True Believers
  • Freedom of Speech gets a fiendish French Twist
  • The God-Awful State of Turkish-American Relations
  • Language-Learning Related Pages:
  • Translating Turkish, the basics
  • Essential Turkish Vocabulary
  • Turkish Verbs
  • Essential Idioms, Index
  • Essential Suffixes, Index
  • Sentence Structure, Standard
  • Turkish Pronunciation
  • Turkish Accenting
  • Turkish Numbers Revealed
  • Other Turkish Difficulties
  • color bar

    [Learn Turkish: Home] [Learning Practical Turkish Table of Contents] [Turkish Learning Message 
Center]Please email us and tell us how we can improve the Learning Practical Turkish Web site.

    © Ottoman History Encyclopedia | Ottoman Empire History | Türk Tarih | Osmanlı Tarih (Osmanli Tarih) | Ali Kuşcu (Ali Kuscu) | Abdulhamid | Adem ile Havva |
    Islamic Calendar - AH | Ottoman Empire

    Ottoman Turkish History, The Ottoman Empire