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Turkish Conjunction Celebration

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[A] [B] [C] [Ç] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [İ] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [Ö] [R] [S] [Ş] [T] [U] [Ü] [V] [Y] [Z]
[Index]
Turkish
English
Examples, supplements, and explanations
A   
aksi halde


(14k bytes)

  • or
  • if not, otherwise
  • Sometimes interchangeable with yoksa:
    Bana verdiğin sözü tut, aksi halde çok pişman olursun! Keep the word you gave me, or you'll regret it.


    (33k bytes)


  • ...connects words, clauses, sentences that have a certain 'opposition' to one another.
ama


(Only on CD)

but
  • Sizin için hemen hemen her şeyi yaparım, ama asla onu yapmam. I'll do almost anything for you, but I won't ever do that.


    (37k bytes)

  • Ben seni çok seviyorum, ama sen beni hiç sevmiyorsun! I love you a lot, but you don't love me at all!


    (33k bytes)

  • Also see 700 Club entry.
ancak


(10k bytes)

but, except
  • Dün sergide çok güzel bir kadınla tanıştım, ancak onun kim olduğunu bilmiyorum. I met a very lovely woman at the exhibition yesterday, but I don't know who she is.


    (44k bytes)

  • Gelirdi, ancak çok hasta. He would have come, except he's very ill.


    (22k bytes)

-arken
[and spelling variations]
See -irken. 
[ve] ayrıca


(Only on CD)

  • [and] besides [that]
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • also
Topkapı Sarayı'nda veya başka bir yerde tam bir yazı koleksiyonu behemehal açılmalıdır [ve] ayrıca bir yazı, tezhip, cildcilik, minyatürcülük tarihimiz hazırlanmalıdır.
In any case, a complete writing collection has to be opened in Topkapi Palace or some other place -- and besides that a history of our writing, 'page-illumination', binding, and minature-painting achievements must be prepared. A.H. Tanpınar, Yaşadığım Gibi, 157
From Örnekleriyle Türkçe Sözlük,
Published by Milli Eğitim BAKANLIĞI, Ankara 1995


(Only on CD)


B  
bari


(Only on CD)

at least, for once
  • Çok açsın bari bir şeyler ye de öyle yat. You're very hungry, [so] at least eat something and then lie down.


    (Only on CD)

bile


(Only on CD)

even
  • Dün akşam yemekler çok güzeldi, güzel bir müzik bile vardı. The food was great last evening, there was even lovely music.


    (Only on CD)


  • ...is used for unanticipated feelings or events.
  • ...is sometimes used in place of the
    de/da conjunction.
bir...-se
[and -sa spelling variation]
onceBir başlarsa devam etmek zorunda kalır. Once she starts she has to continue.


(Only on CD)

bu yüzden See o yüzden. 
bununla beraber, bununla birlikte


(Only on CD)

nevertheless, however, yet, stillÜzgünüm; bununla beraber bundan iyi bir sonuç çıkacağına inanıyorum. I'm sorry [about how this 'thing' turned out]; still, I'm sure it'll be for the best in the end.


(Only on CD)

C  
-cesine, -casına, -çesine, -çasına
  • Note 1: These suffixes are often seen attached after -miş inferential suffixes.
  • Note 2: gibi may be substituted for the suffix -cesine, and its variations.
  • as if, as though
  • Learn Practical Turkish Language color iconÜnlü yıldız Jennifer Lopez, Los Angeles'ı terketti. Hollywood'dan kaçarcasına uzaklaşan Lopez, sakin bir yere yerleşmek üzere emsalsiz malikanesini de satışa cıkardı. Jennifer Lopez has left Los Angeles. And, Lopez (who departed Hollywood as if fleeing) put her peerless mansion up for sale for the purpose of settling in a more tranquil place. Gözcü Gazetesi, 2 April 2004
  • Anahtar kendi eliyle koymuşçasına buldu. He found the key as if he had placed it with his own hands.128
  • Ali hırsızı görmüşçesine tarif etti. Ali described the thief as if he had seen him.128
  • Ahmet kitabı okumuşcasına anlattı. Ahmet narrated the book as if he had [already] read it.128
    Or,
    using gibi as a substitute...
  • Ahmet kitabı okumuş gibi anlattı. Ahmet narrated the book as if he had [already] read it.128
  • Ç  
    -çesine, çasına See -cesine. 
    çünkü
    Sometimes written [and pronouned] as çünki...


    (Only on CD)

    becauseBen araba alamam, çünkü param yok. I can't buy a car, because I don't have the money.


    (Only on CD)

    Also see 700 Club entry.


    D  
    dahi

    A rarely used conjunction.


    (Only on CD)

    also, too, even
    • O dahi söyledi.
      He said it too.
      or
      Even he said it.


      (Only on CD)

    • Sometimes used in place
      of standalone de, da:
      Bu sorunları ben dahi çözemem.
      or
      Bu sorunları ben de çözemem.
      I also can't solve these problems.


      (Only on CD)

    de, da
    (stand-alone words)

    This is a much used and very versatile conjunction -- taking on many different roles depending on the situation. It can connect words, word groups, and sentences -- and sometimes it strengthens sentence meaning.
    When pronouncing it, do so with very little emphasis -- and shorten it so that it becomes part of the preceding word, much like the
    not in can't.

    and, too, so, also, both, but anyhow, even though

    Don't confuse this conjunction with the suffixes -de and -da. Compare:
    1) Ankara'ya da gittik. We also went to Ankara.
    2) Ankara'da kaldık. We stayed in Ankara.

    And even though it's a stand-alone conjunction, don't forget (when speaking) to change it to te or ta depending on the preceding word, just as if
    it were a 'Place Case' suffix, like so, Ralph ta gitti. Ralph also went.... -- although, in writing, the change is usually not shown (see written examples at right).


    A de/da ambiguity...
    There's no ambiguity for Latin-savvy Western audiences when they hear Caesar utter the immortal, "Et tu Brute?" -- after being stabbed by his long-time friend in Shakespeare's play. But in Turkish, the translation is "Sen de mi Brutus?" -- which, when spoken, sounds like "Sende mi Brutus?" And, as a result, a Turkish ambiguity arises... Caesar's utterance in Turkish can be understood either as "And you Brutus?" or as "[Do you have 'something'] On you Brutus?"
    (The 'something' might be 'cash', for example.)
    And Turkish high-schoolers, upon first discovering this, find it thinly humorous (outside of class, of course) to act out the bard's dramatic scene as a jocular exchange between two classmates... "Sende mi Brutus?" asks the first classmate...[Do you have any 'cash' on you Brutus?] And the second classmate replies, "Hayır şimdi bende yok." [No, I don't have any on me at the moment.] Now...no one thinks this deserves a knee-slapping, of course, but it does earn a smirk from on-lookers...
    • It connects words that are equal in nature:
      Toplantıya Hasan da, Ayşe de katıldı. Hasan and Ayşe joined the meeting.


      (Only on CD)

    • It connects sentences [and may add emphasis to critical remarks]:
      Ankara'ya kadar geliyorsun da, niçin bana uğramıyorsun? You're coming as far as Ankara so, why aren't you dropping by to see me?


      (Only on CD)

    • It's used to 'concentrate' meaning. Compare the two following sentences that convey the same meaning:
      Bu işi sen yapamazsın, ben yapamam, Ahmet de yapamaz.
      You can't do this job, I can't do it, and Ahmet can't either.


      (Only on CD)
      Bu işi sen de, ben de, Ahmet de yapamaz. Not you, not I, and also not Ahmet can do this job.


      (Only on CD)

    • It's used to establish a 'cause and effect' relationship:
      Biraz hızlı gidelim de toplantıya zamanında yetişelim. Let's go a little faster so we'll reach the meeting on time.


      (Only on CD)

    • It's used to strengthen 'doublets':
      Sınavları başarmak için çalıştı da çalıştı. He worked and worked to succeed on his exams.


      (Only on CD)

    • It's used in rebukes:
      İşini dikkatli yap da bir daha hata olmasın. Do your work carefully and don't [dare] make another mistake.


      (Only on CD)

    • ...and in threats:
      Borcunu ödeme de sonunun ne olacağını gör! [Just] don't pay your debt [to me], and see what will happen to you!
      [...what will be your end!]


      (Only on CD)

    • ...and in 'astonishment':
      Siz de mi buradasınız?! Are you here too?!


      (Only on CD)

    • It's used to 'belittle':
      Büyüyecek de yenecek! He'll have to grow up before he can beat me! [He'll grow up and then he'll beat me!]


      (Only on CD)

    • ...and to 'reproach':
      Evlenmiş de bize hiç haber vermemiş. He got married but never even told us!


      (Only on CD)

    • ...to 'praise':
      Fasulye de çok güzel olmuş, pilav da! The beans are really great -- and the rice too!


      (Only on CD)

    • ...when repeated, it means both...and:
      Şapkanı da paltonu da giy. Wear both your hat and coat.


      (Only on CD)

    • ...after a repeated verb, it supports the idea of sudden action following a long delay:
      Misafir gelmez gelmez de, birden gelir. The guest doesn't come, doesn't come, and suddenly he comes.


      (Only on CD)

    • Click following to see additional treatment.
    de olsaalthough, albeit, even if, even though, notwithstanding
    • Biraz serin de olsa güzel bir gündü.
      It was a lovely day, although it was a little chilly.
    • Kısacası, tahsilli de olsa, hödüğün biri. He is, in short, a boor, albeit an educated one.
    • Değersiz de olsa güzel bir paraydı. It was a beautiful, even if a worthless, coin.
    değil mi,
    değil mi ki
    sinceDeğil mi (ki) dediğimi yapmadın, nasıl yüzüme bakabilirsin.
    Since you've not done as I told you, how can you look me in the eye?
    demek,
    demek ki
    it means, so, so it means, thus, therefore, in this case
    • Bu kez sınavı başarmış; demek ki iyi çalışmış. This time she passed the exam; so it means she prepared herself well.
    • Düşünüyorum demek ki varım. I think therefore I am. [...I exist.]
    -den
    [and -dan/-ten/-tan spelling variations]
    [As a conjunction it means] than
    • Onu benden daha fazla sever. She loves him more than me.
    • Nursen Janetden uzun. Nursen is taller than Janet.
    • Onu söylemek, yapmaktan daha kolay. That's easier said than done.
    • Hiç yoktan iyi. It's better than nothing.
    • Ondan başkasını gördün mü? Did you see anyone other than her?
    • Üç tanedan fazla kalmadı. There's no more than three left.
    • Also see 700 Club entry...
    -den başka
    [and -dan/-ten/-tan spelling variations]
    except [for], but [for], other [than], apart [from]Çince konuşmaktan başka her şeyi yapabilir. She can do everything but speak Chinese.
    -den dolayı
    [and -dan/-ten/-tan spelling variations]
    because of, on account of, due to 
    diğer taraftan moreover, at the same time 
    -diği gibi
    [and spelling variations]
    asOnun yaptığı gibi yap. Do as she does.
    -diği halde
    [and spelling variations]
    1. although
    2. when
    3. with
    4. if
    1. although
      • Yaşlı olduğu halde iyi dans eder. Although she's old, she is a good dancer. [...she dances well.]
      • İki kez okuduğum halde kitabı hala anlamış değilim. Although I've read the book twice I still haven't understood it.135
    2. when
      • İçeri bedava girebileceği halde para ödedi. He paid, when he could have gotten in free.
    3. with
      • Ekber, elinde ölü fare olduğu halde sokağa fırladı. Ekber dashed out to the street with the dead mouse in his hand.135
    4. if
      • Bu ay içinde evi terkettiğiniz halde sizi mahkemeye vermem. If you leave the house this month I won't take you to court. 135
  • -diği için
  • -diğinden
    [and spelling variations]
  • as, because, whereas
  • because of his/her/our ...ing
  • because he/she/we ...ed
    • Parayı getirmediği için CD'i almadı. As he didn't bring money, he didn't get the CD.
    • Artık kanunen yetki sahibi olmadığı için sizi ona vasi tayin ettim. Whereas she is no longer legally competent, I have appointed you her guardian.
    • Bu akşam tiyatroya gideceğimiz için [gideceğimizden] yemek erken yiyeceğiz. Because we are going to the theater this evening we'll dine early.126
    • Bir Müslümanla evlendiği için [evlendiğinden] kiliseden atılmıştır. Because she married a Muslim she has been expelled from the [Catholic] church.126
    • Gözlerim yorulduğu için [yorulduğundan] televizyonu az izliyorum. Because my eyes get tired, I [only] watch a little television. 127
    -diği nispette
    This conjunction is antiquated. You may only see it in older written publications. Preferable to this in modern Turkish is -dikçe.
  • in proportion to his/her/our ..ing
  • all the more ...ed as
  • Annem, kendini müdafaaya çalıştığı nispette fazla ezilirdi.126
    My mother used to be all the more oppressed as she tried to defend herself (used to be more oppressed in proportion to her trying to defend herself).126
    • -diği yere
      [and spelling variations]
    • -diği yer
      [and spelling variations]
    • from which, whence
    • [the place] where
    • Onu geldiği yere geri gönder. Send it back to the place from which it came.
    • Beni gitmek istediğim yere henüz götürmedin. You haven't yet taken me where I want to go.
    • Onun gittiği yere ben de gitmek zorundayım. I have to go where she goes.
    • İstediğin yere gidebilirsin. You can go where you want to.
    • Onu bulduğun yere bırak. Put it back where you found it.
    • Oturduğu yer orası. That's where she sits.
    -diği zaman
    [and spelling variations]
    when
    • İstediğin zaman başlayabilirsin. You can start when you want to.
    • Onu öldüresi geldiği zamanlar olurdu. There were times when she felt like killing him.
    • Sen nalları dikeceği zaman böyle şeyleri düşünmemelisin! You shouldn't be thinking about such things when you're about to 'kick the bucket'!
    • Also see 'Saying When and When not'...
    • As well as, zaman on the Essential Turkish page...
    -diğince
    [and spelling variations]
  • according to what he/she/ we/they [do]
  • inasmuch as he/she/we/they [does/do]
  • in the measure of his/her/our/their [doing]
  • same meaning as -dikçe [found in older Turkish examples]
  • Herkes, elden geldiğince, fakirlere yardım etmeli. Everyone should help the poor as much as he can afford (according to what is within his capability).126
  • Uzağı göremediğimizce, manzara hakkında bir fikrimiz yoktu. Inasmuch as we couldn't see far, we had no idea about the landscape.126
  • -diğinde
    [and spelling variations]
    when
    • Bart geldiğinde hala giyiniyordu. When Bart arrived she was still dressing.
    • Çalar saat çaldığında kalkman lazım. You have to get up when the alarm clock goes off.
    • Also see 'Saying When and When not'...
    • As well as, de/da and zaman on the Essential Turkish page...
    -diğine göre
    [and spelling variations]
    1. as,
      due to the fact that
    2. when
    1. Davetime bir cevap bile yollamadığına göre herhalde gelmeyecek. Due to the fact that she didn't even reply to my invitation, she probably won't come.
    2. Ayda sadece yüz milyon lira kazandığına göre nasıl araba alabilir? How can she buy a car when she only makes 100 million [Turkish] lira a month?
    -dikçe
    [and spelling variations]
  • as, each time, every time, the more, as long as, so long as, etc.
  • unless -- when used in a negative sentence
  • Learn Practical Turkish Language color iconYıllar geçtikçe kocam bana daha fazla ilgi duyuyor. With every passing year my husband shows more interest in me. See the illustrative cartoon that follows below.
  • Arkadaşını gördükçe yüzü güler. Every time you see your friend he's happy (Every time your friend is seen his face laughs).131
  • Yaşlandıkça hayatı daha bir ciddiye alıyor. He's taking life more seriously as he gets older.
  • Gönül taze kaldıkça insan ihtiyarlamaz. A person doesn't grow old as long as his/her heart stays young.128
  • Özür dilemedikçe bizi affetmiyecekmiş. They say he will not forgive us unless we apologize.128
  • See a newspaper example -- on the
    'S' Idioms page
    ...
  • Also see -dikçe on the Essential Turkish page.
  • -dikten sonra
    [and spelling variations]
    after, subsequent to, as a result of
  • Portakalı yedikten sonra kabuklarını denize attı. After eating the orange (after he ate the orange), he threw the peel into the sea.128
  • O kitap okuduktan sonra bana veriniz. After reading that book (after you read that book), give it to me.128
  • Parkta iki saat yürüdükten sonra oturacak bir yer bulabildik. After walking (after we walked) for two hours in the park, we were able to find a place to sit.128
  • dolayısıyla
  • because of; on account of
  • consequently; so
  • See example sentence at:
    kabul etmek.

    E  
    -e değin
    [and the spelling variation -a değin]
    until 
    -e dek
    [and the spelling variation -a dek]
    until 
    -e kadar
    [and the spelling variation -a kadar]
    until 
    -eceğine
    or
    -ecek yerde
    instead of ...ingHerif benden özür dileyeceğine (dileyecek yerde) küfüre, hakarete başladı. The dirty rat...instead of asking my forgiveness, he began swearing at and insulting me.126
    eğerA word with no meaning by itself, used to establish the boundaries of an 'if' (conditional statement).Eğer Denzel Jennifer'i severse evlenecekler.
    If Denzel loves Jennifer, they will marry.
    Note that the sentence means the same thing, with or without the presence of the word Eğer.
    -eli, -eli beri, -eliden beri, -dim -eli
    [and spelling variations]
    since

    Comprehensive and brand new
    sentence examples...
    • İngiltere'ye geleli güneşe hasret kaldık. We've missed the sun a lot since we came to England128
    • Müdür oldu olalı ailesine hiç vakit ayıramıyor.129 Since she became manager she can't set aside any time for her family.
    • Yeni evimize taşınalı hiç misafirmiz gelmedi.129 Since we moved to our new house no one has come to visit us [...not any visitors have come].
    • Okula gideliden beri Can'ın ahlakı düzeldi. Since Can went to school, his conduct has improved.128
    • Biz buraya geleli (or geleli beri, or geleliden beri, or geldik geleli) hiç Yağmur yağmadı. Since we came here it has not rained.126
    • Ben kendimi bildim bileli bu araba hep böyledir.129 This car has been like that for a long time now. (This car has always been like that, since I myself have known.)
    • Seni gördüm göreli seviyorum.127 I've loved you from the first time I saw you (I've been loving you since I [first] saw you).
    • Ben görmeyeli çocuklar çok büyümüş. The kids have grown a lot since I saw them.
    • See below for an illustrative language-point cartoon...

    The Little Rascal
    Using -eli...
    (see previous panel above)
    Click for more legibility...

    Click for more legibility...

    Proud Father:
    And this is my son King Kong...
    Do you remember [him], Uncle Yavus?

    Aged Uncle Yavus:
    Ooooah! [Of course, I do!]
    But also the l'il rascal [kerata]
    has grown a lot since I saw [görmeyeli] [him last].


    Thanks to:
    Erdil Yaşaroğlu
    author/artist of
    Kıllı Kitap
    Komikaze 7
    published by
    Le Man
    Istanbul

    October 2001
    -ene kadar, -enedek, -ene değin
    Note: These are more formal than: -inceye kadar
  • until, up until the point that
  • as far as
  • Biz gidene kadar orada hapis kalacaktır. Until we go, he will remain imprisoned there.126
  • Hükümet, abluka altına a l ı n a n  yerlerdeki Türkler açlık tehlikesiyle karşılaşana kadar pasif kalmıştır. The government remained passive up until the point that the Turks in the blockaded areas (...in the places taken under blockade) were faced with the danger of hunger.126

  • F   
    fakatbut, though
  • Güzel fakat özgünlükten yoksun bir bina. It's a beautiful, though unimaginative, building.
  • Seninle evlenmek istiyorum, fakat düğün yapacak param yok. I'd like to marry [with] you, but I don't have any money for the wedding. [A likely story...]
  • Also see 700 Club entry...
  • farzet ki supposing that, assuming that 

    G   
    gel gör ki but, but you have to understand thatBu işin hatalı olduğuna ben de inanıyorum; gel gör ki patron böyle yapmamızı istiyor. I think this is the wrong course of action; but the boss wants us to do it that way.
    gerçi...[ama] it is true that...[but]Gerçi pek sevimli değil, ama gayet iyi bir arkadaştır. It's true that she's not very attractive, but she's a true friend.
    gerek...gerek/gerekse

    The number of gereks is not restricted to two.

    • whether...or
      [requires 2 or more gereks]
    • both...and
      [requires only 2 gereks]
    • Konuklar gerek bugün gelsinler, gerekse yarın, biz onları ağırlamaya hazırız. Whether the guests come today, or tomorrow, we are ready to entertain them.
    • Gerek gece çalış, gerek gündüz çalış, bu işi iki gün içinde yap.
      [I want you to] work both day and night, and do this job in two days.
    • See also, 700 Club entry...
    gibi
    Note: gibi is sometimes used together with tıpkı.
  • as if
  • as, like
    • as if -- See -cesine for example sentence using gibi.
    • Richard, kardeşleri gibi marangoz ustasıdır. Richard is a master carpenter, as are his bothers. [...like his brothers.]
    • Click following for additional treatment of gibi [coupled with tıpkı] on our 'Tips' page.
    gûya as if, as though, just as though, supposedly, alledgedly

    H   
    ha...hanearly, almost, both...and, whether...or
    • Ha düştü, ha düşecek.
      He's about to fall.
      or
      He may fall at any moment.
    • Also used [quite nicely] in the idiom...
      Ha Ali Hoca
      ha Hoca Ali
      ...

      However you look at it, it all amounts to the same thing.
      [He's the same, whether you call him Ali Hoca or Hoca Ali...]
    halbukibut, however, whereas
    • ...used for connecting sentences that are contrary in nature:
      Randolf hırsızlık yapmış; halbuki herkes onu dürüst biri sanırdı.
      Randolf carried out the robbery; whereas everyone believed he was honest.
    • Has basically the same meaning and function as oysa.
    hani [-ya] [-dir]...[ama]

    Hani is used as a conjunction in a few cases -- but is more widely used idiomatically as an interogative adverb.

    in fact, moreover...[but]
  • As a conjunction:
    Hani, aklı da yok değil, ama kullanmıyor. In fact she's not dumb, but she just doesn't use her head.
  • Click for idiomatic, interrogative adverb examples.
  • [-den/-dan] hariçexcept [for], but [for], [with the] exception of, excluded, save [for], savingYeni hizmetçi, pencere silmek harıç, hemen hemen her işi yapar. The new maid will do almost everything, except for washing windows.
    hasılı in short, in brief,
    to sum up
    See example at yok...
    hattaeven, moreover, besides, in addition, furthermoreMarmaris'i çok beğendik; hatta iki gün orada kaldık.
    We liked Marmaris a lot; moreover we stayed there for two days.
    hele
    • above all, at any rate
    • just...and [with an imperative/command]
    • Junior geçmesin hele, döverim onu. Just let Junior not pass [the course], and I'll give him a pounding.
    • hele hele -- used as an exhortion, as in: Hele hele söyle daha neler olmuş. Come on then, tell [us] what else happened.
    hem ...hem [de]

    Note: To form the conjunction, multiple-use of the word(s) is required in a sentence. See single use hem on 700 Club page.

    • both this...and that
    • not only...but also
    • hem de by itself can also mean:
      very much so, quite, indeed, and how!
    • Bana hem para vermiyorsunuz, hem de çok çalıştırmak istiyorsunuz! Not only do you want me to work a lot, but you also don't want to pay me!
    • Yeni arabamı kendim beğenirim. Hem de!
      I like my new car. And how!
    herhaldecertainly, surely
    • İster darılsın, ister darılmasın, herhalde hakkımı isteyeceğim. Whether she gets annoyed or not, surely I'll ask for my due.
    • Also see 700 Club entry.
    hiç değilseat leastMadem benimle gelmeyecektin, hiç değilse önceden bir haber verseydin! Since you weren't going to come with me, at least you could have told me beforehand!
    hiç olmazsaat leastBaktın işler kötüye gidiyor, hiç olmazsa bana bir haber verseydin! The jobs you are responsible for are going badly, at least you could have informed me!

    İ   
    için [As a conjunction it means] soAç kalmaması için ona bir armut verdim. I gave her a pear so she wouldn't be hungry.
    ikenSee -(y)ken... 
    ile

    The conjunction ile [like the postposition ile] may be joined with the preceding word,
    in accordance with the
    Rule of Vowel Harmony, like so...
    Seninle ben arkadaşiz.
    You and I are friends.

    [as a conjunction, used between words of equal weight, it means...] and
    • Eski kitaplar ile viski severim. I love old books and whiskey.
    • Also see 700 Club entry.
    -ince
    [and spelling variations]
    A verbal suffix meaning:
    • when, when doing
    • at/during the time that, as soon as
    • although
    • after which, and then, but just then
    • where
    • Çocukları okula gidince, Hande kahvaltısını yapar. As soon as the kids go to school, Hande has breakfast.
    • Güneş batınca yola çıkarız. We'll hit the road when the sun goes down.
    • Ona gelince, hiç taviz vermeyeceğim. Where she's concerned, I won't budge. [When it comes to her, I won't make a concession.]
    • Click following for a fuller treatment of the -ince verbal suffix.
    -inceye değin Same as:
    -inceye kadar
    or
    -inceyedek
     
    -inceye kadar
    [and spelling variations]
    until, up until the point of, up until when
  • Biz telfon edinceye kadar bekiyecek. She's going to wait until we telephone.128
  • Hırsız hava kararıncaya kadar bekledi. The thief waited until [it became] dark.128
  • Can uyuyuncaya kadar yanında oturun. Stay with Can until he sleeps.128
  • Rapor neşroluncaya kadar hiç bir şey yapamayız. We can't do anything until the report is published.126
  • -inceyedek until, up until the point of, up until whenÖlünceyedek bekar kalacak. He'll remain a bachelor until he dies.126
    -ip, -ıp, -üp, -up
    In older texts (translated from Arabic script) the above suffixes may appear, for example, as: -üben, -übeni, and -übenün (and spelling variations). And the suffix -üp (and spelling variations) may appear in older translated texts without adherance to the Rule of Vowel Harmony.131
    This verbal suffix, meaning and, is used when two (or more) verbs relate to each other in the same sentence. Observe and compare sentences in right-hand column.
    • Discoya gidip bütün gece dans ettik. We went to the disco and we danced all night.
    • Discoya gidip bütün gece dans etmedik. We went to the disco and we didn't dance all night.
    • Discoya gitmeyip bütün gece dans ettik. We didn't go to the disco and we danced all night.
    • Discoya gitmeyip bütün gece dans etmedik. We didn't go to the disco and we didn't dance all night.
    • Multi-use of -ip in the same sentence is discouraged, except in idiomatic phrases like:
      • Carrie ölüp ölüp dirildi. Carrie finally got well after being at death's door several times.
      • Ne yapıp yapıp bu işi başarmalı. By hook or by crook, this effort must succeed.
    • Many other idioms
      make use of -ip, such as:
      • everip çevirip -- to turn something over and over, to inspect (something) carefully
      • bağırıp çağırmak -- to rant and rave, carry on
      • sövüp saymak -- to swear a blue streak
      • durup dururken -- suddenly, without provocation, when there was no need for it
    • Click to see more ways to say 'and'...
    -ir...-mez
    [and -ar...-maz spelling variation]
    as soon as, onceGelir gelmez başlayabiliriz. We can start as soon as she gets here.
    -irken
    [and spelling variations]
    as
    ise

    See also -se/-sa...

    [as a conjunction it means]
    whereas, if, as for
    Babası İngiliz, annesi ise [annnesiyse] Amerikalı. His father is English, whereas his mother is American.
    ise dealthough, even ifÇok gayret ettimse de pek işe yaramadi. Although I tried hard it didn't do much good.
    ister...ister (isterse)
    • either...or
    • whether...or
    • İster gitsin, ister kalsın, bana ne? [You can] either let him stay or let him go, what do I care?
    • İster bugün gelirsin, ister yarın gelirsin, ben her zaman evdeyim. Whether you come today or tomorrow, I'm always at home.
    • Margaret ister evde kalsın, isterse bizimle gelsin. Margaret can either stay at home or come with us.

    Learn Turkish language


    K   
    kadaras...asOnun kadar budala değil. She's not as foolish as he [is foolish].
    kah...kahsometimes [this], sometimes [that]Dünya dört mevsimdir, kah Yağmur, kah kar yağar, kah çiçek açar, kah yapraklar dökülür. There are four seasons on earth -- sometimes it rains, sometimes it snows, sometimes the flowers are in bloom, sometimes the leaves fall.
    kaldı ki moreover, furthermoreBugün işim çok; kaldı ki biraz hastayım, bu toplantıya katılamam. I've go a lot of work today; furthermore I'm slightly ill, so I'll skip this meeting.
    [...won't join this meeting.]
    -e/-a karşınin spite of, despite, even though
    • Yolun kötü olmasına karşın, arabayla ilerlemeye çalıştık. Even though the road was bad, we tried making progress by car.
    • See also rağmen...
    -(y)ken

    Note: The word iken is the stand-alone equivalent of this conjunctive suffix.

    A verbal suffix meaning:
    • when
    • while doing
    • at/during the time that, as soon as
    • while, when
    • although
    • after which, and then, but just then
    • Kralken ülkeyi iyi yönetti. When he was king he ruled the country well.
    • Venidik'teyken onları gördük. We saw them when we were in Venice.
    • Amerika'da iken [America'dayken] amcamı birkaç kez ziyaret ettim. I visited my uncle in hospital a few times when I was in America.
    • Click following to see a fuller treatment of the suffix...
    keşkeA word (almost as redundant as eğer) used to reinforce the past conditional verb tense -- to express unfulfilled 'wish'.
    • Keşke gitmeseydi çok daha iyi olurdu! If only he hadn't gone, it would have been much better!
    • Click following for an example of a full verb conjugation featuring keşke.
    ki

    This interesting conjunction takes on different roles according to the situation. But it is not to be confused with the suffix -ki, whose purpose and meaning are entirely separate.


    Also see 'ki aslında' below...
    A stand-alone 'postposition' word meaning:
    1. that, who, which
    2. so that, such that
    3. what do you know, would you believe it, son of a gun
    4. seeing that, considering that
    5. as, though
    6. when
    7. ..., I wonder?
    8. indicates frustration, disapproval, doubt, or anxiety
    9. used for emphasis

    1. Bir şey yapmadım ki pişmanlık duyayım. I haven't done anything that I should feel sorry about.
      Click to see Politically Incorrect illustration of ki usage...
    2. Öyle ucuz ki herkes alabilir. It's so cheap that everyone can afford it.
    3. Eve geldim ki kapı duvar. I came home [alone], but [would you believe it?] nobody answered the door.
    4. Adam üşümüş ki paltosunu giymiş. The man must have been cold seeing that he put on his coat.
    5. Cevap vermeseydi bile -- ki verdi -- iş olacağına varırdı. Even if he hadn't replied -- though he did -- the thing wouldn't have turned out any differently.
    6. Henüz uykuya dalmıştı ki, bir patlama oldu. I'd just dropped off to sleep when something exploded.
    7. Bilmem ki ne yapsam? What should I do, I wonder?
    8. O bana inanmaz ki! She won't believe me [so why should I speak to her?]...
    9. Öyle güzel ki! It's more beautiful than I can say!

    That's been one helluva celebration...
    -- a two ki illustration --

    Left click for legibility, see our CD for complete translation.
    The difference between the
    stand-alone ki conjunction
    and the
    ki suffix

    As seen in the first example of the preceding chart-entry,
    we Turkish-language strugglers may use the stand-alone ki
    (which G.L. Lewis informs us is actually a 'borrowed' Persian conjunction)
    for sentence-construction that resembles the English-language pattern --
    thus reversing the normal Turkish sentence-pattern.
    [However, we notice that Turkish-speakers don't seem particularly comfortable with
    this kind of usage -- preferring instead, the normal Turkish sentence-pattern.]

    For example:
    Normal Turkish sentence pattern:
    Cuma gideceğine eminim.
    I'm sure he'll go on Friday.
    [Friday of his going I'm sure.]

    Revised Turkish sentence pattern using the ki conjunction:
    Eminim ki cuma gidecek.
    I'm sure that he'll go Friday.
    [I'm sure that Friday he will go.]




    But what are we to make of the ki suffix?
    Does it relate at all to the stand-alone ki conjunction?
    Well, the answer is a flat and unequivocal no!


    Uses of the ki suffix:
    For the most part,
    the ki suffix adds a sense of specificity to the word it's attached to...


    Examples/Observations:
    • Seninki -- the one belonging to you
      [this is sort of a strong rendition of yours]...
      Bu kitap seninki[dir]. This is the book belonging to you.
    • Billinki -- the one belonging to Bill [a strong rendition of Bill's]...
      Bu araba Billinki[dir]. This is the car that belongs to Bill.
    • Masadaki kalem Mirandanın. The pen on that specific table is Miranda's.
    • Bugün toplantıya bakan gelmedi. The minister didn't come to the meeting that was held today.
    • Note (from the examples above) that the ki suffix doesn't bother about conforming to the Rule of Vowel Harmony, except (curiously) in words that contain a final ü-vowel, like gün, dün and bugün...
    • Also, note the slightly different meaning in the two following sentences:
      Bu kitap benim değil This is not my book. [...a straight denial]
      Bu kitap benimki değil This is not my book. [...a denial too, but with the additional meaning of I have a book, but this is not it. This one belongs to someone else.]
    • And finally [as long as we're on the subject], please observe how the ki suffix adds 'expressiveness' to the next sentence:
      Gümüldür'deki evimiz küçük, İzmir'deki daha büyüktür. Our house in the town of Gümüldür is small, our other one in Izmir is bigger.
      [Now if it were only true...]
    ki aslındabut actually...,
    but the thing about that is...(An additional 'standalone ki' curiosity is that, with these meanings, 'ki' may appear at the beginning of a sentence. See example in right hand column.)
    Margaret'e gittim. Ki aslında gitmemem gerekiyordu çünkü gururumla oynadı. I went to talk to Margaret. But actually I shouldn't have gone, because she hurt my pride.
    korkusu ile lest  

    L   
    lakinbutThis conjunction is sometimes substituted for
    ama, fakat, ancak, or yalnız...

    İstediğim evi satın aldım, lakin çok borçlandım. I bought the house I wanted, but [now] I'm very much in debt.

    M  
    madem (mademki)since
    • Madem(ki) anlamıyorsun, niçin karışıyorsun? Since you don't understand, why do you butt in?
    • Mademki bu kadar zenginsin, neden Maserati'ni almıyorsun. Since you're so rich, why don't you buy a Maserati.
    • Mademki ısrar ediyorsun, seninle sinemaya geliyorum. Since you insist, I'm coming to the movies with you.
    mamafih (maamafih)however, nonetheless 
    -mazsa See -mezse 
    -meden, -madan
  • before
  • without
  • Beni görmeden gitmeyiniz. Don't go before seeing me (...before you see me).128
  • Sizi fazla rahatsız etmeden gitmek istiyorum. I want to go before troubling you any further (...before I trouble you any further)128
  • Ahmet bize teşekkür etmeden gitti. Ahmet left without thanking us.128
  • Note that çok geçmeden has passed into the language as before long or very soon thereafter.
  • -meden evvel/önce,
    -madan evvel/önce
    Supporting adverbs may be inserted before evvel or önce.
    before
  • Ben gelmeden evvel işe başlamayınız. Don't start work before I come.126
  • O ölmeden az önce ağladı. She cried a little before he died.126
  • Biz ayrılmadan iki gün evvel hasta oldum. Two days before we left, I became ill.126
  • -medikçe
    [and the spelling variation -madıkça]
    unlessDevlet harcamalarında kesinti yapmadıkça enflasyon yükselecek. Unless the government makes cuts in its expenditures, inflation will increase.
    meğer, meğerse, meğer kiapparently, it seems that, now I/we find out that...
    • Bana zengin biri olduğunu söylemişti, meğerse tek kuruşu bile yokmuş. He told me he was a rich man, now I come to find out that he's penniless.
      [the kuruş monetary unit has had a long history of use (going back to Ottoman times) but due to high Turkish inflation rates during the 1980's and 1990's it became worthless -- and fell out of existence. It was reintroduced at the time of the New Turkish Lira revision in 2005 (see NRED).]
    • Onu çok çalışkan bir insan sanırdık, meger ki tembelin biriymiş. We thought he was a very industrious person, but apparently he's a lazy one.
    • Ben de seni arkadaş sanırdım, meğerse aldanmışım. I believed you were my friend, [but] it seems I was mistaken.
    • ...is used in cases of unexpected disclosure.
    • It is used alone sometimes at the end of a sentence: Izmir'e çıkmış meğer...
      She has gone to Izmir apparently...
    meğerkiunless
    • Otobüse yetişmeyceksin, meğerki koşasın. You can't catch the bus unless you run.
    • Gideceğiz, meğerki kar yağsın. We'll go, unless it snows.
    • Note the slight spelling difference
      with meğer ki above...
    -mekle by/with ...ing
  • Gitmekle aptallık ettim. I did a silly thing by going.126
  • İstanbul'da büyük bir yangın zuhur etmekle, Sultan Selim Edirne'ye gitti. With a great fire happening in Istanbul, Sultan Selim went to Edirne.126
  • -meksizin
    [and -maksızın spelling variation]
    without
  • Bir kelime bile söylemeksizin gitti. He went away without even uttering a word.128
  • Antalyanın güzelliğini görmeksizin Londra'ya dönecekmiş. They say he'll return to London without seeing the beauty of Antalya. 128
  • -mektense
    [and -maktansa spelling variation]
    rather than
  • Oraya gitmektense ölmeyi tercih ediyorum. I'd rather die than go there. [Rather than go there I prefer to die.]
  • Learn Practical Turkish Language color iconSizi rahatsız etmektense sigara içmem. Rather than disturb you, I shall not smoke.128
  • mesela

    May be used interchangeably with örneğin...

    for example
    • Viski severim, mesela 'Old Red Eye' favorimdir. I like whiskey, for example 'Old Red Eye' is my favorite...
    • See also 700 Club entry...
    -mesi gerektiği
    [and spelling variations]
    (plus -ken, or iken, or halde)
    whenEn az bir milyar lira alması gerekirken sadece beş yüz milyon aldı. When she should have gotten at least a billion lira, she only got five-hundred million.
    -mesi gerektiği yere
    [and spelling variations]
    (plus -ken, or iken, or halde)
    where
    • Lale dikilmesi gereken yere gül dikti. He planted roses where he should have planted tulips.
    -mesi mümkün olduğu
    [and spelling variations]
    (plus -ken, or iken, or halde)
    when 
    -mesin diye
    [and spelling variations]
    lest  
    -mezden, -mazdan
    Not seen as frequently as: -meden.
    before'Para bulunmazdan kimse çıkamaz' diyor polis. The policeman says, "No one can leave before the money is found."126
    -mezden evvel/önce,
    -mazdan evvel/önce
    Not seen as frequently as: -meden evvel/once.
    before'Para bulunmazdan önce kimse çıkamaz' diyor polis. The policeman says, "No one can leave before the money is found."126
    -mezse
    [and spelling variation -mazsa]
    unless
    • Gelmezse gidemeyiz. We can't go unless he comes.
      [If he doesn't come, we can't go.]
    • See also -se/-sa

    N   
    ne çare ki but, but it's hopeless, but what can be done?Sana yardımcı olmak istiyorum; ne çare ki benim de param yok. I'd like to help you out; but it's hopeless... I don't have any money either.
    ne var ki but, onlyHollywood yıldızı ödeme yapmak üzere kasaya gittiğinde eski sevgilisinin kredi kartını vermiş, ancak kartın limiti yetersizmiş. Bunun üzerine çantasından son sevgilisinin kartını çıkarmış. Ne var ki bu karttan da para çekilememiş. When the Hollywood movie star went to the cashier about to pay, she gave her old lover's credit card -- but the card's limit was insufficient. So then she pulled from her purse the card of her latest lover. But money couldn't be withdrawn from this card either.
    ne zaman ...ise
    [and spelling variations]
    wheneverKendisini ne zaman görsem o günü düşünürüm. Whenever I see her, I think of that day.
    ne...ne [de]

    The number of nes is 'unlimited'.

    • neither/nor
    • either/or
      [with a negative verb]
    • what/what
    • ne...ne, neither...nor [single ne pair]
      • Cevabı ne olumlu, ne de olumsuzdu. His answer was neither positive nor negative.
      • Ne tarlam var ne de kargadan davam. (Turkish Proverb)
        Neither have I fields nor troubles with crows...
        [I may be poor but I'm also care free.]
    • ne...ne, neither...nor [multi ne]
      • Hindu Kuş Dağların arasından geçerken, çevrede ne bir ev, ne bir insan, ne bir ağaç, ne bir hayvan hiçbir şey gözükmüyordu. Nothing was visible in the surroundings while passing through the Hindu Kush mountains -- neither house, nor person, nor tree, nor animal.
    • ne...ne, either...or [with a negative verb]
      • Bugün çıkmadım -- ne bahçeye ne sokağa. I haven't gone out today -- either to the garden or to the street.
    • ne...ne, what...what
      • Ne çaldın yüzüme ne çalayım yüzüne. (Turkish Proverb) The evil you have done to me, I'll likewise do to you.
        [What a hit you gave to my face, what a hit I'll give to yours...]
    nedeniyle because 
    nereden from whereOna onun nereden geldiğini söyledim.
    I told her where it came from.
    nitekimjust as...,
    in the same way...,
    likewise...
    • Onlara Yağmur yağacağını önceden söylemiştim, nitekim bir saat sonra gerçekten yağmaya başladı. Just as I told them before that it was going to rain, an hour later it started raining in earnest.
    • Ben anlayamadım, nitekim sen de anlamış değilsin. Just as I was unable to understand it, neither did you.

    O   
    o yüzden
    1. so
    2. whence
    1. Bana git dedi; o yüzden gittim. She told me to go, so I did.
    2. Hiç bir sorumu doğru cevaplayamadı; bu yüzden sahtekar olduğna karar verdim. She couldn't answer my questions correctly; whence I concluded that she was an imposter.
    olmakla beraberalthoughHoca sert olmakla beraber öğrenciler mutluydu. Although the teacher was strict, the students were happy.
    olsun...olsun
    • both...and
    • whether...or
    • let...let
    • Note: a single olsun can mean
      'if only' or
      'that would be perfectly OK'...
    • Küçük olsun, büyük olsun herkes Jack Lemmon'u çok severdi. Every one loved Jack Lemmon, both young and old alike.
    • Bir dakika olsun istirahat edelim. Let's rest, if only for a minute...
    • See below for an illustrative language-point cartoon...

    The Dim-witted Astronuat...
    Using olsun...olsun -- an illustration...

    Click for more legibility...

    Learned Professor:
    Look now...
    Let [olsun] this orange be Planet Earth,
    and let [olsun] this apple be The Moon...

    Dim-witted Astronaut:
    Hmmm.
    I think I'm beginning to understand...


    Thanks to:
    Selçuk Erdem
    author/artist of
    Karikatürler - 3
    published by
    Parantez
    Istanbul
    October 2000
    oysa, oysakibut, yet, however, whereas
    • ...used for connecting sentences that are contrary in nature:
      Ben sana çok güvenmiştim; oysaki sen beni aldattın. I trusted you implicitly; but you cheated me.
      Kendisi onun tabloları seviyor, oysa kocası onlardan nefret ediyor. She loves his paintings, whereas her husband hates them.
    • Has basically the same meaning and function as halbuki.

    Ö   
    örneğin

    May be used interchangeably with mesela...

    for example
    • Votka severim, örneğin 'Russki Red Nose' favorimdir. I like vodka, for example 'Russki Red Nose' is my favorite...
    öte yandan moreover, at the same time 
    öyle ki so,
    because of it/that
    • Çok yorgunum, öyle ki yemek yiyecek halim bile yok. I'm very tired, so I'm not even in condition to eat something.
    • Seni seviyorum; öyle ki senin için canım bile veririm. I love you; because of that I'd even give my life for you.
    öyle geldi kiI/he/she felt like...Öyle geldi ki gidip onunla konuşayım. I felt like going and having a talk with him.

    R  
    -e/-a rağmenin spite of, despite, even though
    • Aptal olduğunu bilmelerine rağmen onu seviyorlar. despite their knowing [that] he's a fool, they still like him.
    • Yolun kötü olmasına rağmen, arabayla ilerlemeye çalıştık. Even though the road was bad, we tried making progress by car.
    • New York'ta "Rice and Riches" adıyla açılan sütlaç evi neredeyse günün 24 saati hizmet veriyor; buna rağmen dükkanın önünde uzun kuyruklar oluşunca, sütlaç ustası Cemal Edwards, yeni şubeler açacak. In New York, a sütlaç (rice pudding) eatery (that opened with the name of "Rice and Riches") is giving service nearly 24 hours a day; in spite of this (since long lines form in front of his shop), rice-pudding guru Cemal Edwards plans to open new branches. Gözcü Gazetesi, 27 July 2003 (See photo-article at left.)

    • See also karşın...
    • See also 700 Club entry...

    S   
    sanki
    • as if
    • It's as if...
    • as if...
      • Mariah dün akşam partide sanki beni hiç tanımıyormuş gibi davrandı. Last night at the party Mariah acted as if she didn't recognize me.
      • Sanki dünyanın sonu gelmiş gibi konuşuyor. He's talking as if it were the end of the world.
    • It's as if...
      Bu herifi sanki bir yerden tanıyorum. It's as if I know this guy from someplace.
    -se, -sa if

    Also see eğer and ise.

    İşin yolunda giderse padişahın kızını bile alırsın. If you just get going, you can even marry the Sultan's daughter.

    Ş   
    şayet [şayed] if [by chance, perchance], if maybe, lest  
    şöyle dursunlet alone...
    never mind about...
    Tercümanlık yapmak için şöyle dursun, kendi lisanını bile bilmez. Never mind about acting as an interpreter, he doesn't even know his own language.
    şöyle kiand soBu sorunu çözdük; şöyle ki yarın hepiniz ücretlerinizi zamanında alacaksınız. We've solved the problem; and so everyone will be paid on time tomorrow.
    şu var kionly, however, and yet (used to introduce a remark/sentence) 

    T   
    ta kiso that evenEn sade bir üslupla yazdı, ta ki en aptal okuyucu anlasın. He wrote in the simplest of all styles so that even the most stupid reader could understand.
    tıpkı [often used together with gibi] just like, identical to
    • Marie-Claire tıpkı annesi gibi konuşyor. Marie-Claire talks just like her Mom.
    • Click following for additional treatment of tıpkı [coupled with gibi] on our 'Tips' page.
    tut kibutBence riske girmeyelim; tut ki işler iyi gitmedi... o zaman ne yapacağız? I don't think we should take the risk; but if things don't work out...what will we do then?

    U/Ü   
    -üp, -üben, -übeni, -übenün
    (and spelling variations)
    See: -ip verbal suffix. 
    üstelikfurthermore
    • Çok halsiz ve yorgunum, üstelik başım da ağrıyor. I'm feeling weak and tired, and furthermore I have a headache.
    • ...is sometimes used in place of hatta or bile...

    V   
    vaktiyle...kenwhile at one time, where onceVaktiyle on fabrikaya sahipken, şimdi sadece bir fabrikası var. Where they once owned ten factories, now they only own one. [Note that the gender and number of owners is not made clear in the Turkish sentence. Because of the way the sentence is written, there might even be a single owner.]
    ve

    Wherever possible,
    real Turkish speakers and writers avoid the use of ve -- as explained on our Tips page...

    and
      The conjunction ve
      is grammatically correct when...
    • Used to connect words -- like nouns, adjectives, and adverbs of equal weight:
      İnsanlar başarıya ulaşmak istiyorlarsa, çalışkan, zeki, akıllı ve dürüst olmak zorundalar. People have to be industrious, intelligent, wise, and trustworthy if they want to be successful.
    • Used to connect pronouns:
      Senin ve benim dünyalarım birbirinden çok farklı. Your world and mine are quite different from each other.
    • Used to connect sentences and/or clauses:
      Ödevlerinizi bu akşam yazın ve onları bana yarın getirin. Do your homework tonight and bring it to me tomorrow.
    • Used between 'doublets':
      Yıllarca ve yıllarca hep bu mutlu anı bekledim. I've been waiting years and years just for this happy moment.
    • Sometimes used interchangeably with ile:
      Ben en çok ağaçları ve çiçekleri severim.
      or
      Ben en çok ağaçlar ile çiçekleri severim.
      I like trees and flowers best of all.
    • Also see 700 Club entry...
    veyaor
  • Bu olaydan sonra üç veya dört yıl hapis cezası verirler.
    After this incident they'll give [him] a three or four year jail sentence.
  • Also see 700 Club entry...
  • veyahutor
  • Artık derslerine iyi çalış veyahut okulu bırak, bir işe gir. Look! You either gotta study seriously or leave school and get a job.

  • Y   
    ya (on it's own)various uses/meanings, such as:
    1. you know; isn't it so
    2. yes indeed
    3. and [but] what if...; and [but] what about...
    1. Bugün niye okula gitmedik -- pazar ya! Why didn't we go to school today? -- because it's Sunday, you know!
    2. [colloquially speaking] Bir çay alim mi -- ya, alim. Will I take a glass of tea -- yes indeed, I'll have one.
    3. Bu kadar yetişir diyorsun, ya yetişmezse? You say that this will be enough, but what if it's not?
    ya...ya, ya daeither...or
    • Ya bunu yaparsan, ya buradan temelli defolursun. Either you do this or you clear out for good.
    • Bu iş ya olacak ya da olmayacak.
      This deal will either work out or it won't.
    • Ayşen'lerin evlerin önünde ya da deniz kıyısındaki iskelede seni bekleyeceğim. I'll wait for you either in front of Ayşen's family house or at the seaside dock.
    • Also see 700 Club entry...
    yahutor
  • Bu kadınla üç gün içinde evleneceksin yahut ömür boyu bekar kalacaksın.
    You'll either marry this woman in three days or you'll be a life-long bachelor.
  • yalnız

    When it is used in place of ama, fakat, lakin, ancak -- it adds 'vigor' to a sentence.

    [as a conjunction it can mean]
    but or only
  • Sana borç verebilirim, yalnız en kısa zamanda bana geri ödemelisin. I can lend you [some money], but you have to pay me back as soon as possible.
  • Geldi, yalnız biraz geç kaldı. He did come, only he was a bit late.
  • It is also used as an adverb or an adjective...
    See the 700 Club entry...
  • yani...That is to say, I mean, in other words...
    • Bu adam geçmişte hırsızlık yapmış, yani sabıkalı biri. This man has committed robbery in the past, I mean he's someone with a police record.
    • ...is used to throw more light on the subject.
    • ...is sometimes used at the beginning of questions:
      Yani bunca olaydan sonra, sen bu kadının dürüst biri olduğunu mu savunuyorsun? Do you mean that after this much has happened, you are [still] defending the trustworthiness of this woman?
    • Also see its 700 Club entry.
    yeter kiall that is needed, provided thatBiz bu engeli de aşarız; yeter ki siz dikkatli olun. We'll overcome this obstacle; provided that you be careful.
    yok may be used sarcastically to parade a list of excusesYok kağıdı kalmamış, yok mürekkebi iyi değilmiş, hasılı bir alay bahaneler. Oh no, she'd run out of paper, oh no, the ink was no good; in short, [she gave] a parade of excuses.
    yoksa,
    yok...ise
    • or
    • otherwise, or else, if not
    • but if
    • not
    • all that is needed is...
    • Şaka mı söylüyorsun, yoksa gerçekten gücendin mi? Are you kidding, or have you really taken offense?
    • Bu mümkün mü yoksa değil mi? Is this possible or not?
    • Bana verdiğin sözü tut, yoksa çok pişman olursun! Keep the word you gave me, or you'll regret it.
    • Bana borcunu hemen öde yoksa yasal yollara başvururum. Pay the debt you owe me right away otherwise I'll take legal action.
    • Daha hızla çalış yoksa patron seni kapı dışarı eder! Work faster, or else the boss will fire you.
    • Böyle bir meselede insan hislerine göre hareket etmeli, yoksa aklına göre değil. In a case like this you should act according to your feelings, not according to your reason.
    • Her şey hazır, paramız olsun yoksa. Every thing is ready, all we need is some money.
    • For an example of 'yok...ise', see the joke with Fadime's statement and translation at:
      Temel in an avalanche of ifs where Fadime says, '...yok saçım dağınık ise mutlaka istiyorumdur.
      '
    • ...connects words, clauses, sentences that have a certain 'opposition' to one another.
    • ...sometimes used in place of aksi halde.
    • Also see its 700 Club entry.

    Z   
    zirabecauseSen bu gece bizde kalamazsın, zira evde fazla yatak yok. You can't stay at our place tonight, because we don't have extra beds.
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